Timeline Saudi Arabia

Timeline Saudi Arabia

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CIA Factbook: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sa.html
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USLC: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/satoc.html

Some 5,000 princes controlled all power and resources.
    (WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)
Saudi Arabia holds the Koran as its constitution.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.56)
The capital is Riyadh. Sunni Muslims comprise the majority and Shiite Muslims are the minority and live mostly in impoverished villages in the oil-rich eastern part of the country.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)
Religious purity called for deceased non-Muslims to be sent abroad for internment.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.A1)
Saudi Arabia is about 1/5 the size of the US.
    (SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)

c1AD        Nabatean masons carved tombs into solid rock in Madain Salah near Madinah.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

500-600    Arabs about this time brought back home from India the numerals we refer to as Arabic numbers.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)
500-600    The Arabian city of Ubar, disappeared in the early 6th century. The event was later cited by Muhammad in the Quran. In 1992 a team of investigators announced the discovery of he long lost Arabian city of Ubar. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands” (1999).
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)

570        Jan 19, Mohammed (d.632), "The Prophet", founder of Islam and speaker in the “Koran,” was born into the Quraysh tribe in Makkah. He was orphaned at an early age and found work in a trade caravan. He married a wealthy widow and this gave him the freedom to visit Mount Hira each year to think. His birthday is observed on the 12th day of Rabi ul'Awwal, the 3rd month of the lunar calendar, in a festival known as Mawlid-al-Nabi. The Koran was probably not fixed for the 1st two centuries after the emergence of Islam.
    (ATC, p.59)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.97)

610        Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.
    (ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)

620        Aug 22, This day corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back.
    (WSJ, 8/8/06, p.A10)(www.atheists.org/Islam/mohammedanism.html)

620        Mohammad gained about a hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for himself and his followers.
    (ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)

622        Jul 16, Islamic Era began. Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).
    (MC, 7/16/02)

622        Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).
    (MC, 9/20/01)

622AD        Sep 24, In the Hegira Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new faith was called "Islam," which means submission to Allah. Believers in Islam are called Muslims-- "Those who submit to Allah's will." In Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.19)(ATC, p.60)

622        The Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.

624        Muslims engaged non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr.

624-628    Several Jewish clans in the Arabian peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet of God.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)

630AD        Mohammad raised an army of 10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship. Mohammad returned from Madinah and began the Islamic conquest of Arabia.
    (ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)

632        Jun 8,    Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for “jihad.” The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil.
        Four contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor.
    (ATC, p.60,63)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP, 6/8/03)   
        Iqra, which means read in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel spoke to Mohammed.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)
        In 2001 Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making ”
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

634        Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah (61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph. Before his death he appointed Mohammed's adviser Omar (Umar) as his successor.
    (ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)

644        Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the 2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.

656        In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. Ali prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning "the party of Ali." Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
    (ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)
656        The Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)

661        Jan 24, Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group.
    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14)(MC, 1/24/02)

855        Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780), Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the 4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include: a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school, named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or acts) that were current in the Prophet's city. C) The school of Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)

1324-1325    Mansa Musa, king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.
    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1400s        The Saud dynasty was founded near Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1511        In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1517        Jan 22, Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 1/22/02)

1703        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(www.concise.britannica.com)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)

1710        Muhammad Ibn Saud was born.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1742-1765    In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1744        In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar'ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1773        Riyadh fell to Abdul Aziz.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a "cultural massacre."
    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)

1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”
    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1801        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1803        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz, son of Abdul Aziz, captured the Holy City of Makkah.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1804        The Wahhabis captured Medina, Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1806        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1807        Saud al-Saud invaded Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy it.

1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahhabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1813        The Wahhabis were driven from Mecca. They returned a century later as rulers of the new state of Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)

1814        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz died. Prior to his death Muhammad Ali Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt, retook Hijaz, captured the son of Saud ibn Abdul Aziz and executed him in Istanbul.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahhabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int'l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)

1824        The Saud family established a new capital at Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant  founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senussi)

1860s-1890s    The Saud family moved to exile in Kuwait when the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arabia.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1865        Faisal bin Turki, the successor of Turki, died. He won control of most of Nejd and Hasa by the time of his death.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He traveled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.
    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)

1883        May 20, Faisal ibn Husayn (d.1933), the 3rd son of the grand sherif of Mecca, was born in Mecca. He later became 1st king of Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921).

1891        Muhammad bin Rashid, a tribal leader in Hail, captured Riyadh. Rashid had already taken much of Saud territory and concluded a pact with Turkey. Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, leader of the Al Saud family, was forced to leave.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1901        Dec, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) left Kuwait with some 40 friends with plans to attack Riyadh.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1902        Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1902        Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia from 1953-1964.

1904        Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (d.1975) later king Saudi Arabia, was born.

1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Nejd region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1906-1926    Saudi forces captured the Al Hasa, Asir and Al Hijaz regions, unifying much of Arabia under Saudi rule.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Hasa region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1908        Sep 1, The first railway in modern Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz railway from Jordan's border to Medina, reached Medina. This narrow gauge railway was shut down in 1915.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)

1908        Hussein (1854-1931) became Emir of Mecca and continued to 1917 when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_bin_Ali,_Sharif_of_Mecca)

1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement)

1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt. Sharif Hussein, Arab Emir of Mecca, led the revolt.
    (HN, 6/10/98)(ON, 10/05, p.7)

1916        Oct, T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) met with Feisal Hussain for the 1st time.

1916        Nov, T.E. Lawrence was assigned as the British liaison to Arab Prince Feisal Hussain.

1917        Jul 2, An Arab army led by Feisal Hussein and Bedouin chief Auda Abu Taiya fought Turkish forces at Aqaba killing 300 and capturing 160 Turkish soldiers.
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.
    (AP, 7/6/08)

1918        Sep 27, Arab forces attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).
    (ON, 10/05, p.8)

1918        Oct 1, The main Arab force entered Damascus (Syria).
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)

1918        Arab Prince Feisal took control of Syria.
    (ON, 10/05, p.9)

1918        Lawrence of Arabia blew up the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)

1921        The Ikhwan fighters under Abdul Aziz took the Jebelshammar region.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)(WSJ, 1/7/02, p.A10)

1921        Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence promoted "the sherifian solution," under which the Hashemite family-- Hussein, the sherif of Mecca, and his sons, would rule over the region under Britain's eye.
    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)

1921        At the Cairo Conference Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine. 
    (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)

1923        King Fahd was born in Riyadh.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)

1924        Oct, The Kingdom of the Hijaz (later Saudi Arabia) was short lived with King Hussain abdicating in favor of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in December 1925.

1924        Ibn Saud, king of the Nejd, conquered Hussein's kingdom of Hijaz and launched Wahhabi rule over Saudi Arabia.
    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)

1924-1926    Abdul Aziz took Makkah, Madina and Asir.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1926        Jan,  Abdul Aziz was declared King of Hejaz and the Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies.

1927        Jan, Abdul Aziz became King of Hejaz, Nejd and its Dependencies.

1927        May 20, Saudi Arabia became independent of Great Britain with the Treaty of Jedda.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1927-1928    King Abd al-Aziz crushed an uprising be fanatical Islamist tribes of central Arabia.
    (WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1931        Mohammad bin Laden immigrated to Saudi Arabia from Yemen. He established a construction business and built close ties with the king.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)
1931        Osama bin Laden was born in Jidda to a Syrian mother. He was the 17th of 51 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a baggage carrier, who left Yemen in 1931. Muhammad and his brothers were the founders of a prosperous construction company. In 2004 Jonathan Randal authored “Osama: The Making of a Terrorist.”
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(WSJ, 9/2/04, p.D16)

1932        Sep 22, The government of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd officially changed its name to Saudi Arabia.

1932        Sep 23, In 2005 King Abdullah established this day as the official unification date of Saudi Arabia and made it an official holiday.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.49)

1932        Nov 23, The kingdoms of Nejd and Hejaz merged to become the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. Abdul Aziz (d.1953) proclaimed the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was named after King Ibn Saud, founder of the Saudi dynasty. Abdul Aziz al-Saud fathered 44 sons.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)(SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(AP, 11/23/02)

1932        Dec 22, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed.

1933        May, Saudi Arabia gave Standard Oil of California exclusive rights to explore for oil. Socal formed the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia.
    (www.chevron.com)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1936        Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.

1936        Mar 3, Standard Oil of California struck oil at Damman No 7. Aramco made the first commercial oil find in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The English Arabist, H. St. John Philby, orchestrated the Aramco concession in Saudi Arabia.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)(www.chevron.com)

1936        The Texas Co. joined Standard Oil in Saudi Arabia. The joint venture eventually became the Saudi oil giant Aramco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1938        Norman Lewis (d.2003), British travel writer, authored "Sand and Sea in Arabia."
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A22)

1945        Feb 14, Saudi King Abd al-Aziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt met on a ship in the Suez Canal and reached an understanding whereby the US would protect the Saudi royal family in return for preferred access to Saudi oil. William Eddy, US minister to Saudi Arabia, arranged the meeting.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/5a3c49)

1945        Mar 22, The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt. Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the UN and the Arab League.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1947        The family-owned Olayan Group was founded in Saudi Arabia and grew to became one of the country’s largest private conglomerates.
    (WSJ, 1/16/08, p.A10)

1948        May 18, Arab Legion captured the fort on Mount Scopus.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1948        May 18, Saudi Arabia joined the invasion of Israel.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1951        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since 1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to the capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)
1951        Saudi Arabia put the Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175 miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.
    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)

1953        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the 1st Education Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1953         King Abdul Aziz died. He was the founder of modern Saudi Arabia and fathered a total of 44 sons before his death. Aziz was succeeded by King Saud who ruled to 1964.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

1953-1964     King Saud ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1956        Feb 18, The US lifted its arms ban and shipped tanks to Saudi Arabia.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1962        May 3, William A, Eddy (b.1896), former US minister to Saudi Arabia (1944-1946), died. In 2008 Thomas W. Lippman authored “Arabian Knight: Colonel Bill Eddy, USMC, and the Rise of American Power in the Middle East.”
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)

1962        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia abolished slavery.

1963        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the Interior Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1964        Nov 2, Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud (1904-1975) succeeded his older brother Saud bin Abdul Aziz as king of Saudi Arabia.

1964-1975     King Faisal ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1965        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the 2nd Deputy Prime Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1965        Television arrive in Saudi Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could use it to promote their faith.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)

1965-1966    King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television. There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1966        In Egypt Sayed Qutb (b.1906), intellectual godfather of radical Islam, was executed by Pres. Nasser. Qutb had earlier written: "A Muslim has no nationality except his belief." He denounced western hedonism and the decadence of Muslim regimes. Qutb had spent some time in the US (1948-1951) and authored the 1951 essay “The America I Have Seen.” His brother Muhammad went into exile in Saudi Arabia where he taught at King Abdul Aziz Univ. Osama bin Laden was one of his students.
    (WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A18)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)(Sm, 2/06, p.100)

1967        June 2, Three bombs, one a car bomb, went off in the Saudi seaport town of Jidda. One outside the US Embassy, one at Grove Int'l, an American construction comp., and one at the US Military Training Mission.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-7)

1967        Sep 3, Muhammad Bin Laden, a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia, died in a plane crash. He left King Faisal in charge of his ~50 children.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_bin_Laden)

1972        Kamal Helbawy, a London-based Egyptian and speaker on behalf of the Muslim Brotherhood, was invited to Saudi Arabia to set up the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY).
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)

1973        Oct 17, Arab oil-producing nations announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan; the result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(AP, 10/17/97)

1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1975        Mar 25, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June.
    (AP, 3/25/00)

1963        Prince Fahd  became Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister.
    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)

1975        Mar 25, King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (68) of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June. In 2008 Joseph A. Kechichian authored “Faysal: Saudi Arabia’s King for All Seasons.”
    (AP, 3/25/00)(Econ, 10/04/08, p.92)

1975        Jun 18, Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz, Saudi prince, was beheaded in a Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.

1975        Saudi Arabia began nationalizing foreign oil assets with full compensation.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)
1975        Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since.

1975-1982     King Khaled ruled.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)

1977        Feb 24, Pres. Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations. The unstated reason was the US desire to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to lure Somalia from the Soviet camp, an effort which was ultimately successful.

1977        Prince Turki al-Faisal was promoted to head of the General Intelligence Directorate. He resigned in 2001.
    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

1978        Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)

1979        Apr 4, Bechtel Corp. announced that it had won a contract to manage construction of a 115-square-mile airport for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cost was estimated a $3 billion.
    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.F3)

1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1979        May 20, Helen Smith (b.1956), a British nurse, died after reportedly fall from a balcony in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The bodies of Helen and Johannes Otten (35), a Dutch tugboat captain, were found in the street 70 feet below a sixth floor balcony. Helen was found lying in the road fully clothed and Johannes, whose underpants were around his thighs, was impaled upon the spiked railings surrounding the apartment block. Helen’s father, Ron Smith, did not allow her burial because he did not believe official Saudi and British reports that the death was an accident. He believed his daughter was murdered and that her body could provide forensic evidence to expose a cover up. In 2009 Smith and his ex-wife decided to cremate their daughter before they both died.
    (AP, 11/9/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Smith_%28nurse%29)

1979        Nov 16, Some 200 armed men and women, Mahadi-ists, seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They denounced the monarchy and demanded an end to corrupting modernization and "foreign ways." Saudi preacher Juhayman al Uteybi led the radicals. French special forces shot dead all the Wahhabi extremists.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)(WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1979        Dec 4, In Saudi Arabia security forces overran the Grand Mosque in Mecca, which had been seized on Nov 16. One of two African-American converts, who had participated in the take-over of the mosque, was killed. The other was later released and returned to the US. In 2007 Yaroslav Trofinov authored “The Siege of Mecca.”
    (WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1979        Osama bin Laden left Saudi Arabia to fight against the Soviets in Afghanistan, where he laid the groundwork for his al-Qaeda network.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)

1980        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia beheaded 63 people in towns across the country for their roles in the November 1979 raid on the Grand Mosque in Mecca.
    (AP, 1/9/00)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)

1980        Aug 19, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency landing at the Riyadh airport.
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1981        Apr 21, Pres. Reagan called for support for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. The proposed AWACS sale was just the beginning of a secret $50 billion plan to build surrogate military bases in Saudi Arabia.

1981        May 25, Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004), United Arab Emirates President, urged in 5 other Arab monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to form the Gulf Cooperation Council. The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Riyadh.
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Cooperation_Council)

1981        Oct 28, The US Senate voted for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a 2nd major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/98qre)(SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)

1981        Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia proposed an 8-point peace plan to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. It was adopted by the Arab League after some controversy.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)

1982        Jun 13, King Khalid of Saudi Arabia died at the age of 69; he was succeeded by a half brother, Crown Prince Fahd.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(AP, 6/13/02)   

1982        Adnan Khashoggi, an arms dealer from Saudi Arabia, settled divorce proceedings with his wife Soraya for $950 million plus property.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.E6)

1983        Nov 25, Syria and Saudi Arabia announced a cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli.

1983        In Saudi Arabia the King Khalid Int'l. Airport opened in Riyadh and was touted as the largest in the world. One of the terminals was mothballed at opening and remained so in 2008.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A1)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.15)

1983        Sulaiman Al Rajhi and his brother Saleh won permission to open Saudi Arabia’s first Islamic bank. They had begun changing money for traders and pilgrims in the 1940s. In 2007 Sulaiman Al Rajhi’s fortune was estimated at $12 billion and the Al-Rajhi Bank was the largest Islamic bank in Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A1)

1983-2005    Prince Bandar bin Sultan served as Saudi Arabia’s ambassador in Washington. In 2006 William Simpson authored “The Prince: The Secret Story of the World’s Most Intriguing Royal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan” (www.saudiembassy.net/Country/Government/BandarBio.asp).
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.86)

1984        Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAR) agreed on the creation of a two-brigade (10,000 troops) Peninsula Shield Force, based in Saudi Arabia near the Kuwaiti and Iraqi borders.

1985        Britain under PM Thatcher signed an $80 billion contract with Saudi Arabia to provide 120 fighter jets and other military equipment over a period of 20 years. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to the US, helped negotiate the deal.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)

1986        Apr 1, World oil prices dipped below $10 a barrel.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1987        Jul 31, Iranian pilgrims and riot police clashed in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government blamed Iranians for the resulting 402 deaths.
    (AP, 7/31/97)(AP, 2/1/04)

1987        Aug 1, Iranians attacked the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti embassies in Tehran as word spread of rioting in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a day earlier that claimed some 400 lives, most of them Iranian pilgrims.
    (AP, 8/1/97)

1987        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia denounced Iran's government as a "group of terrorists," and said its forces would deal firmly with any Iranian attempts to attack the Saudis' Muslim holy places or vast oil fields.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1988        Saudi-born Osama bin Laden founded al Qaida (the base), a Sunni fundamentalist operational hub for terrorist activities. The organization’s intent was to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout the world.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)

1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.

1989        Jul 9, Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim, wounding 16. Saudi authorities blame Iranian-inspired terrorists and later beheaded 16 Kuwaiti Shiite Muslims for bombings. Iran denied involvement.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

1989        Rafik Hariri financed a gathering of Lebanese politicians at the Saudi city of Taif to hammer out a deal to disband militias and distribute power more equitably. The Taif Agreement maintained sectarian divisions in government and led to the end of the civil war. It stipulated that Syria withdraw its troops to the border and leave within 2 years.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A13)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.43)

1989        The $140 million King Fahd Cultural Center was completed on the outskirts of Riyadh. It has never been opened to the public and was maintained by a fulltime staff of 180 people.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)

1990        Jul 2, Some 1402 Muslim pilgrims were killed in a stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leading to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It was worst hajj tragedy of modern times.
    (AP, 7/2/00)(AP, 2/1/04)

1990        Aug 7, President Bush ordered U.S. troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. Operation Desert Shield ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded.
    (AP, 8/7/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(MC, 8/7/02)

1990        Aug 8, As the Persian Gulf crisis deepened, American forces began taking up positions in Saudi Arabia; Iraq announced it had annexed Kuwait as its 19th province; President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that "a line has been drawn in the sand."
    (AP, 8/8/00)(MC, 8/8/02)

1990        Aug 11, Egyptian and Moroccan troops arrived in Saudi Arabia to join US forces in helping to protect the desert kingdom from possible Iraqi attack.
    (AP, 8/11/00)

1990        Aug, 540,000 American troops assembled to drive Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A22)

1990        Sep 22, Saudi Arabia expelled most of the Yemeni and Jordanian envoys in Riyadh, accusing them of unspecified "activities jeopardizing the peace and security of the kingdom."
    (AP, 9/22/00)

1990        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia a group of women got into cars and drove the streets of Riyadh in defiance of a government ban. The protest, which made headlines around the world, cost the 47 female drivers and passengers dearly. They were arrested, lost their jobs for 2 1/2 years, were banned from travel for a year and were condemned by the powerful clergy as harlots. The led interior minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz to ban women from driving.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 6/16/12)

1990        Nov 21, President Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia, where he conferred with Saudi King Fahd and Kuwait's exiled emir.
    (AP, 11/21/00)

1990        Yemen’s refusal to endorse military action against Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait so annoyed the governments of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait that they expelled a million Yemeni migrant workers, costing the country huge sums in remittances.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.45)

1991        Jan 17, On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, US-led forces hammered Iraqi targets in an effort to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. A defiant Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared that the "mother of all battles" had begun. Iraq attacked Israel with ten Scud missiles. The US Patriot defense missile was used in battle for the first time to shoot down a Scud fired at Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 1/17/01)

1991        Jan 22, During the Gulf War, Iraq fired six Scud missiles into Saudi Arabia; all were either intercepted, or fell into unpopulated areas. However, in Tel Aviv, a Scud eluded the Patriot missile defense system and struck the city, resulting in three deaths.
    (AP, 1/22/01)

1991        Jan 24, A brief skirmish occurred high above the Persian Gulf as a Saudi warplane shot down two Iraqi jets.
    (AP, 1/24/01)

1991        Jan 29, Iraqi forces attacked into Saudi Arabian town of Kafji, but were turned back by Coalition forces.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1991        Jan 30, The first major ground battle of the Gulf War was fought at the frontier port of Khafji in Saudi Arabia; eleven US Marines were killed, seven of them by "friendly fire."
    (AP, 1/30/01)

1991        Jan 31, During the Gulf War, Army Specialist Melissa Rathbun-Nealy and Army Specialist David Lockett were captured by Iraqi forces near the Kuwaiti-Saudi border; both were eventually released. Allied forces claimed victory against Iraqi attackers at Khafji, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 1/31/01)

1991        Feb 23, French forces unofficially started the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. Lessons learned in the savage 1972 Eastertide Offensive paid off at the Battle of Khafji in the Gulf War almost two decades later.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1991        Feb 25, During the Persian Gulf War, 28 Americans were killed when an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 2/25/98)

1991        Mar 24, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.
    (AP, 3/24/01)

1991        Apr 29, US troops continued airlifting Iraqi refugees from a camp in southern Iraq to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/29/01)

1991        Jul 11, A Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, int'l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1991        Khalid bin Sultan was the commander of the Saudi military forces during the Gulf war. He later became the principal owner of Al-Hayat, an Arabic language daily published in London.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)

1991        A Saudi businessman started the 1st independent Arabic news and entertainment channel, the London-based Middle East Broadcasting Co.
    (WSJ, 10/25/00, p.A17)

1992        Sep 11, President Bush announced he was approving the sale of 72 F-15 jet fighters to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/11/97)

1992        In Saudi Arabia King Fahd decreed a basic law that for the 1st time outlined an institutional structure for the country. A law was passed that allowed the king to name any of his brothers or nephews as a successor, and to replace him at will.
    (WSJ, 9/25/02, p.A11)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)

1992        A team of investigators announced the discovery of he long lost Arabian city of Ubar, which had disappeared around the early 6th century. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands” (1999).
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)

1993        Saudi wheat production, part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

1994        May 23, Some 270 pilgrims, most of them Indonesian, were killed in a stampede in Mecca as worshippers surge toward cavern for symbolic ritual of "stoning the devil."
    (AP, 2/1/04)

1994        The Saudis chose AT&T for a $4 billion telecommunications project.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)

1994        The Saudi family of Osama bin Laden disowned him. The Binladin Group later invested with the Washington-based Carlyle Group, which also employed George Bush Sr.
    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)
1994        In Saudi Arabia Osama Bin Laden, the scion of a wealthy Saudi family, was stripped of his Saudi citizenship. He financed a host of hard-line groups from Egypt to Algeria. His fortune was estimated at $250 mil.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, p.A10,12)
1994        Safar al-Hawaly and Salman al-Awdeh, religious militants and critics of the government, were jailed.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C3)

1994-1996    The BBC ran an Arabic language satellite TV service from a Saudi-backed company called Orbit. It ended after Saudi’s objected to the BBC’s programming.
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.57)

1995        Nov 13, A car bomb killed 7 people, including five Americans, and injured about 60 at a military training facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T5)(AP, 11/13/00)

1995        Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdel-Aziz has been in charge of the 80,000 man national guard since the early 60's.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)

1995        A record 192 people were beheaded.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A10)

1996        May 31, Four Saudi citizens were beheaded for the bombing of a US facility last Nov 13. The explosion shattered the Saudi Arabian National Guard training center, and killed 5 Americans and 2 Indians. [the date doesn't seem to jive]
    (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A12)

1996        May, Osama bin Laden was driven out of Sudan under pressure from the Clinton administration. His horse, “Swift Like the Wind,” was left behind. He had lived there for some years running a construction company and allegedly recruiting and training terrorists. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a Saudi Arabian-backed jihadist leader, invited bin Laden back to Afghanistan and bin Laden returned.
    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W4)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.40)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)

1996        Jun 4, The Saudi debt load is already equal to about  $100 bil.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A12)

1996        Jun 25, At least 19 Americans were killed at a US base near Dhahran. Another 105 suffered serious injuries from a truck bomb estimated at 5,000 pounds at the Khobar Towers apartment complex adjacent to King Abdul Aziz Air Base. About 5,000 US troops served in Saudi Arabia. US, French and British aircraft resumed flying 100 missions per day over southern Iraq from Saudi Arabia. In 1997 intelligence information tied a senior Iranian intelligence officer to Hani Abd Rahim Sayegh, a man who fled Saudi Arabia shortly after the bombing. In 1999 the US threatened was set to deport Hani al-Sayegh to Saudi Arabia. Sayegh feared torture and asked for US asylum. Sayegh was deported Oct 10. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 13 Saudis and one Lebanese man were indicted for the bombing that killed 19 American airmen and wounded nearly 400 others. In 2006 a US judge ruled that Iran financed the bombing and owes families of those killed $254 million.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A22)(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A10)(SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/23/06, p.A1)
1996        Jun 25, Later reports said that Osama bin Laden, an exiled Saudi billionaire, bankrolled the bombing of the US base that killed 19 US servicemen. He was an advocate of strict Islamic rule and had said that he would campaign to overthrow the Saudi royal family. He had lived in the Sudan for 5 1/2 years and recently moved to Afghanistan and was accepted by the Taliban. In 1998 a senior Saudi official absolved Iran of any involvement in the bombing. In 2000 it was reported that the Bin Laden family firm was awarded the contract to rebuild the Khobar Towers.
    (SFC, 3/7/97, p.A17)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)

1996        Dec, Yvonne Gilford (55), an Australian nurse, was stabbed and bludgeoned to death at the King Fahd Military Medical Center in Dammam. Two other nurses, Deborah Parry (38) and Lucille McLaughlan (30) were accused of the murder. Their sentences were commuted and the accused nurses were released May 20, 1998. McLaughlan faced charges in Scotland of stealing $2,800 from a dying AIDS patient in 1996 before leaving for Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A14)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A19)

1996        Dec, Abdul-Karim Naqshabandi, a foreign worker, was executed after refusing to falsely testify against another employer. His employer, a nephew of the king, demanded his death on false charges of witchcraft.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A15)

1996        Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd (73) ceded power to his half-brother, Crown Prince Abdullah, who is considered to be more of a traditionalist.
    (WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-1)

1996        The United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan recognized the Taliban after they seized the Afghan capital Kabul. All three countries cut ties with the Taliban after it sheltered al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the US.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

1997        Mar 2, Saudi Arab billionaire Prince al-Waleed bin Talal acquired 5% of Apple.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1997        Apr 15, In Saudi Arabia at least 343 Muslim pilgrims died in a fire on a plain outside the holy city of Mecca and injured 1290. The fires stemmed from cooking gas canisters. Aid workers and diplomats said the death toll was at least 500.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/15/98)(AP, 2/1/04)

1997        Dec 18, It was reported the Prince Alwaleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud was building a 984-foot structure called "The Kingdom Centre" in central Riyadh at a cost of $427 million.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A1)

1998        Mar, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico began talking to reduce oil output. They pledged to take 2-3% of the world's oil production off the market in what came to be called the Riyadh Pact.
    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 9, In Saudi Arabia it was reported that 2.3 million Muslims made the pilgrimage, hajj, to Mecca this year. Over 150 pilgrims died at the "stoning of the devil" ritual during a stampede that occurred on the last day of the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)(AP, 4/9/08)

1998        Jun 4, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela agreed to cuts in oil production and exports for the 2nd time this year in order to raise prices.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A2)

1998        Jun, Prince Turki al Faisal of Saudi Arabia, chief of Saudi intelligence, negotiated with the Taliban in Kandahar for the ouster or custody for trial in Saudi Arabia of Osama bin Laden. Negotiations broke down after the Aug 7 US embassy bombings in Africa.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A15)

1998        Jul 20, Saudi Arabia attacked a Yemeni island in the Red Sea and killed 3 guards. 3 islands and parts of the Empty Quarter, a vast desert with potential for oil, were under contention.
    (SFEC, 7/21/98, p.A7)

1998        Saudi Arabia, in response to a massive outbreak of rift-valley fever, imposed a trade ban to prevent nomadic herders from selling sheep and goats for sacrifice during the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. The government opted to buy more expensive Australian livestock instead.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.80)

1998        The Saudi population was about 12 million. In 2006 it reached 23 million. The forecast for 2020 was 33 million.
    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.12)

1999        Mar 19, Saudi Arabia permitted some 18,000 destitute Iraqis to cross the border for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)

1999        Jun 27, It was reported that Saudi Arabia had recently opened its borders to upscale travel groups.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)

1999        Aug 21, Prince Faisal bin Fahd, the eldest son of King Fahd, died of a heart attack at age 54. He headed the Arab Sports Federation and had just returned from the Arab Games in Jordan.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.D5)

1999        Nov 27, Yemeni military sources reported that 2 Yemeni soldiers had been killed over the last few days in border clashes with Saudi Arabia.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A26)

1999        Dec 9, The first day of Ramadan. In Saudi Arabia a young man was scheduled to be beheaded by this day unless the family of a man he killed, while performing the mizmar dance, receive some $1.3 million in blood money.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A13)

1999        Anthony Cave Brown published "Oil, God, and Gold: The Story of Aramco and the Saudi Kings."
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)

1999        Saudi police arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal and jailed him for 14 months for maintaining contact with Osama bin Laden. He was then deported to Yemen.
    (SFC, 11/26/03, p.A10)

2000        Jun 12, Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed an agreement to end decades of border disputes.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A11)

2000        Oct 14, A Saudi jetliner was hijacked with over 100 people and landed in Baghdad. 2 hijackers were arrested.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A10)

2000        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia opened its border with Iraq and signed export contracts to nearly $600 million under exceptions to US sanctions.
    (WSJ, 11/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 17, A car bomb in Riyadh killed Christopher Rodway, a British technician. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)

2000        Nov 22, In Riyadh an explosion hit a car and injured 3 British citizens. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.
    (SFC, 11/24/00, p.D8)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)
2000        Nov 22, Yemen identified the bombers of the USS Cole as 2 Saudi Arabian citizens with Yemeni family roots. One was named Abdul Mohsen al-Taifi and both had suspected ties to Osama bin Laden.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A22)

2000        Dec 31, Six Persian Gulf nations (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) signed a regional defense pact.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Jan 26, A UN panel criticized Saudi Arabia for discriminating against women, harassing minors and for punishments that included flogging and stoning.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.C16)

2001        Jan, Abdulaziz al-Kohaji, engineering student and son of a Saudi oilman, went missing from the Community College of Denver. His body was found in a landfill in Erie, 15 miles north of Denver, a month later and police said he had been taped to a chair and strangled before being thrown into a trash bin. Mishal al-Suwaidi, Tariq al-Dossary and al-Yousif, suspects in the murder, were acquaintances of al-Kohaji and prosecutors said the motive was robbery. Suwaidi and Dossary fled to Saudi Arabia. Yousif was convicted in the US and sentenced to life. In 2004 the family of Kohaji pardoned the Suwaidi and Dossary and save them from execution.
    (AP, 1/2/05)

2001        Mar 4, Muslim pilgrims climbed Mount Arafat as some 2 million gathered for the annual hajj to Mecca.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 5, Muslim pilgrims began the stoning of the three pillars symbolizing the devil as part of the annual hajj to Mecca. 35 people suffocated to death during the stoning of the devil ritual.
    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 3/6/01, p.A11)

2001        Mar 15, Chechen rebels hijacked a Russian plane with 174 people after it left Turkey. They forced a landing in Medina.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 16, Saudi commandos freed over 100 hijacked hostages held by Chechen rebels. 3 people were killed including a hijacker, a flight attendant and a passenger.
    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 25, The Higher Committee for Scientific Research and Islamic Law claimed that Pokemon games and cards have "possessed the minds" of Saudi children.
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.F2)

2001        Apr 16, Iran and Saudi Arabia signed a pact to fight terrorism and drug trafficking.
    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)

2001        Aug 4, In Florida an immigration official turned back Muhammed al-Kahtani (al-Qahtani), a Saudi who had flown in from London with $2,800 in cash and no return ticket. He was later captured in Afghanistan and detained at Guantanamo after officials suspected that he was the intended 20th hijacker for the Nov 11 attacks. In 2008 the Pentagon dropped charges against al-Qahtani.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.39)(AP, 5/13/08)

2001        Aug 31, Prince Turki al-Faisal resigned as head of the General Intelligence Directorate and Prince Nawwaf took over.
    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)

2001        Sep 13, A private Lear jet with 3 Saudi passengers flew from Tampa, Fla., to Lexington, Ky., as part of an effort to help prominent Saudis, who feared reprisals over the Sep 11 attack by al-Qaida in NYC.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)

2001        Sep 14-24, Six chartered flights carrying mostly Saudi nationals departed from the US. [see Sep 20]
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)

2001        Sep 20, A chartered flight left the US with members of the sprawling bin Laden family. The FBI interviewed 22 of the 26 people aboard.
    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)

2001        Sep 23, The 6-member Persian "Gulf Cooperation Council" (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAR) met in Jidda and pledged support for an int'l. coalition against terrorism.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 25, Saudi Arabia withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Afghan Taliban government.
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 6, A bomb exploded in Khobar. 2 people were killed and 4 were injured.
    (SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A17)

2001        Oct 15, It was reported that Sheik Hamoud bin Uqlaa al-Shuaibi (80), a militant Wahhabi, called on Muslims to wage jihad on supporters of the US military action in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A12)

2001        Oct 31, The Bush administration said the Saudi government has issued an order to freeze assets of people and groups suspected of links to terrorism.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A5)

2001        At Washington’s request the UN Security Council ordered that the assets of Yassin Qadi, a Saudi businessman and multimillionaire, be frozen soon after the Sep 11 attacks in NYC. He was alleged to be a financier of Islamic terrorism with close links to al-Qaida. The EU froze the assets of Yasin al-Qadi, a Saudi businessman, and the Al-Barakaat International Foundation, a Sweden-based charity suspected of funding al-Qaida terror groups. In 2008 the EU's highest court overturned the decision saying the order failed to offer those on a terror blacklist any legal rights to a judicial review under European law. Also frozen were the assets of Omar Mohammed Othman, also known as Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher from Jordan. In 2009 an EU court voided the freeze on Othman due to lack of proper judicial review. Othman has lived in Britain since 1993, has been arrested several times there under anti-terrorist legislation and currently faced deportation to Jordan.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/3/08)(AP, 6/11/09)

2002        Jan 4, A WSJ editorial by former US Army officer Ralph Peters blamed Saudi Arabia as the source of fundamentalist terrorism. "We must be prepared to seize the Saudi oil fields and administer them for the greater good."
    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan 13, Muslim scholars concluded a 6-day conference in Mecca and issued a definition of terrorism as: "all acts of aggression committed by individuals, groups or states against human beings, including attacks on their religion, life, intellect or property.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A12)

2002        Jan, Saudi Arabia began the demolition of the 222-year-old Al Ajyad Ottoman fortress on Bulbul Mountain in Mecca. A $120 million hotel complex was planned. The demolition angered Turkey and destruction was halted.
    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A9)

2002        Feb 17, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah presented a Middle East peace plan to NY Times columnist Thomas Friedman. It included Arab recognition of Israel's right to exist if Israel pulled back from lands that were once part of Jordan, including East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 19, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims gathered in Mecca for the annual hajj.
    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A11)

2002        Mar 7, Doctors in Saudi Arabia reported that the world's 1st uterus transplant lasted 99 days before it began to deteriorate.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Mar, A fire at a girl's school in Mecca killed 15 students.
    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 4, The UN released $995 million in compensation to Kuwait for Iraq's 1990 invasion. Most went to 1,058 individuals. Saudi Arabia received $82.6 million and Jordan got $44.9.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A12)

2002        Apr 13, Ghazi Algosaibi, Saudi ambassador to Britain, published a poem in the Saudi daily Al Hayat  titled "The Martyrs," in praise of Ayat Akhras, the Mar 29 Palestinian suicide bomber.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 20, It was reported that recent flash flooding from torrential spring rains had killed at least 19 people.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A24)

2002        Apr 25, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, who told him bluntly that the US must temper its support of Israel. Abdullah gave Bush an 8-point proposal for Middle East peace.
    (SFC, 4/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr, The Saudi government cracked down on factories producing women's cloaks that violated religious rules.
    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.A16)

2002        May, Saudi diplomats clashed with the UN Committee Against Torture over whether flogging and the amputation of limbs are violations of the 1987 Convention Against Torture.
    (SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A18)

2002        Jun 11, Moroccan police arrested three Saudi nationals who were allegedly planning attacks against U.S. and British war ships in the Strait of Gibraltar. They were identified as: Hilal Jaber al-Assiri, Abdellah Ali al-Ghamdi and Zuher al-Tbaiti.
    (AP, 6/11/02)

2002        Jun 13, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Prince Saud al-Faisal and indicated that he would support the creation of a Palestinian state.
    (SFC, 6/14/02, p.15)

2002        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia announced its first al-Qaida-related arrests since Sept. 11 and said it was holding 11 Saudis, an Iraqi and a Sudanese man behind a plot to shoot down a U.S. military plane taking off from a Saudi air base.
    (Reuters, 6/18/02)(AP, 6/18/02)

2002        Jun 20, In Saudi Arabia John Veness, a British employee at Al Bank al Saudi al Fransi, was killed in a car bomb explosion in Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 6/21/02, p.A7)

2002        Jun, Iran transferred 16 al Qaeda suspects to Saudi Arabia.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A13)

2002        Jul 19,  In Saudi Arabia a passenger bus collided head on with a truck and caught fire outside the holy city of Mecca, killing 26 people and injuring 24 others. 
    (AP, 7/21/02)

2002        Jul 22, Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz (43), the genial Saudi prince who dominated racing the last two years with Kentucky Derby winner War Emblem and 2001 horse of the year Point Given, died.
    (AP, 7/23/02)

2002        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia's Foreign Minister Prince Saud said his country had made it clear to Washington, publicly and privately, that the U.S. military will not be allowed to use the kingdom's soil in any way for an attack on Iraq. Saud said the longtime U.S. ally does not plan to expel American forces from an air base used for flights to monitor Iraq.
    (AP, 8/7/02)(AP, 8/8/02)

2002        Aug 13, The minaret at the Imam Ali al Uraidh Islamic shrine complex in Medina was demolished with dynamite.
    (WSJ, 8/18/04, p.A1)

2002        Aug 27, Pres. Bush met with Prince Bandar bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia, who said war with Iraq was not acceptable and that Saudi Arabia would not cooperate.
    (SFC, 8/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 6, US officials reported that the assets of Wa'el Hamza Julaidan, alleged al Qaeda financier, had been frozen, and that he had been located in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A8)

2002        Sep 29, A Saudi prince signed deals worth $330 million to export Sudanese livestock and build a five-star hotel in Sudan's capital.
    (AP, 9/29/02)

2002        Nov 3, Saudi Arabia said it would not permit bases on its soil in an attack against Iraq and would not grant flyover rights to US military planes even if the UN sanctions an invasion. Prince Saud later said a final decision had not been made.
    (SFC, 11/4/02, p.A3)(SFC, 11/5/02, p.A7)

2002        Dec 10, Saudi dissidents reported a new radio station, Sawt al-Islah (the Voice of Reform), had started broadcasting from Europe to push for reforms.
    (SFC, 12/11/02, p.A14)

2002        Dec 12, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by as much as 7%, well ahead of a seasonal decline.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.B1)

2003        Feb 8, Nearly 2 million Muslims converged on Mecca for the annual pilgrimage. Some of the faithful offered prayers to avert a U.S.-led war on Iraq.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

2003        Feb 11, In Mina, Saudi Arabia, 14 Muslim pilgrims were trampled to death when some worshippers tripped amid a jostling crowd during the devil-stoning ritual of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 2/11/03)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)

2003          Feb 18, Saudi Arabia said it has referred 90 Saudis to trial for alleged al Qaeda links. Another 250 were reported under investigation.
    (SFC, 2/19/03, A10)

2003          Feb 20, In Saudi Arabia a British defense worker was killed by Saud bin Ali bin Nasser, a Saudi citizen.
    (SFC, 2/21/03, A1)

2003        Mar 25, Saudi Arabia contacted the United States and Iraq with a peace proposal and was still awaiting a response.
    (AP, 3/25/03)

2003        Apr 28, The US moved an air operation center from Saudi Arabia to Qatar.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2003        Apr 29, The US said it would withdraw all combat forces from Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/29/03, A14)

2003        May 6, Saudi authorities seized a weapons cache and foiled plans by suspected terrorists. At least 19 men were sought.
    (SFC, 5/8/03, p.A1)

2003        May 12, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, multiple, simultaneous suicide car bombings at 3 foreign compounds killed 26 people, including 9 US citizens. The next day Saudi authorities linked Khaled Jehani (29) head of a 19-member al-Qaida team to the carnage. Ali Abd al-Rahman al-Faqasi al-Ghamdi, a senior al Qaeda figure, surrendered Jun 26. On Jan 8, 2004, 8 accomplices were arrested in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/14/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/27/03, p.A16)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)(AP, 5/12/08)

2003        Jun 7, The Saudi interior minister linked last month's Riyadh bombings to the al-Qaida terror network in an interview, and his ministry identified 12 of the attackers.
    (AP, 6/7/03)

2003        Jun 15, The Saudi government said it foiled "an imminent terrorist" attack with an overnight raid on a bomb-filled, booby-trapped apartment in the holy city of Mecca that left five suspects and two security agents dead.
    (AP, 6/15/03)

2003        Jun, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (22), a US citizen, was arrested in Medina as Saudi authorities were investigating a wave of bombings. He was convicted in 2005 in a Virginia federal court of conspiring with Al-Qaida. In 2008 a federal appeals court upheld the conviction, but ordered a new sentencing hearing. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill Pres. George W. Bush.
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.A14)(SFC, 6/7/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/28/09, p.A5)

2003        Jul 3, In Suweir, Saudi Arabia, Turki Nasser al-Dandani, the top suspect wanted in the May 12 Riyadh suicide bombing, was killed along with three other militants in a gunbattle when police raided their hideout.
    (AP, 7/3/03)

2003        Jul 21, The Saudi government announced that police arrested 16 al-Qaida-linked terror suspects over the last 4 days and used tractors to dig up an underground arsenal: 20 tons of bomb-making chemicals, detonators, rocket-propelled grenades and rifles.
    (AP, 7/22/03)

2003        Jul 28, In Saudi Arabia 6 suspected militants were killed in a firefight with Saudi police, who raided a farm where they were hiding out. Two police also were killed.
    (AP, 7/28/03)

2003        Aug 10, Saudi police arrested 10 suspected Muslim militants following a gunfight after police tried to stop their cars outside Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 8/12/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 11, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah flew to Morocco for talks with King Mohammed VI about Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 8/11/03)

2003        Aug 15, Saudi police arrested at least 11 suspected militants and seized a large weapons cache in southern Jazan province that included rockets and explosive chemicals.
    (AP, 8/16/03)
2003        Aug 16, Former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, blamed for the murder of tens of thousands of his people in the 1970s, died in a Saudi hospital where he had been critically ill for weeks.
    (AP, 8/16/03)

2003        Sep 2, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdullah met Russia's Pres. Putin on the first visit to post-Soviet Russia by a Saudi leader, aimed at coordinating oil exports and soothing Russian concerns about alleged funding of Chechen rebels by Saudi charities.
    (AP, 9/2/03)

2003        Sep 14, A Saudi importer of  some 58,000 Australian sheep was reported to be trying to give them away for free. The sheep had  been stranded for five weeks on the ship, the Cormo Express, due to a 6% infection rate for scabby mouth disease. Australia in 2002 had imposed tougher rules on ships exporting livestock to the Persian Gulf after it was revealed that 14,500 sheep had died from heat stress in one month. Some 5,700 sheep aboard the Cormo Express died before Eritrea accepted the animals.
    (AP, 9/14/03)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)
2003        Sep 14, Dhaher bin Thamer al-Shimry, a Saudi marijuana trafficker, was beheaded, bringing the number of beheadings in the kingdom this year to 41.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

2003        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia a fire that swept through el-Haer prison in Riyadh and 94 were initially reported killed. 67 inmates died in the worst prison fire in Saudi Arabian history.
    (AP, 9/16/03)(AP, 2/16/12)

2003        Sep 23, A raid in Saudi Arabia on Islamic militants left three suspects dead, including Jubran Sultan al-Qahtani (aka as Zubayr al-Rimi), an al-Qaida figure wanted by the US.
    (AP, 9/24/03)

2003        Oct 13, The Saudi Cabinet announced that first-ever elections would be held for local councils in 14 municipalities throughout the country.
    (AP, 10/14/03)

2003        Oct 14, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, hundreds took to the streets demanding reforms, the first large-scale protest in this conservative kingdom where demonstrations are illegal.
    (AP, 10/14/03)

2003        Oct 20, Saudi authorities announced the arrests of terrorist suspects and the discovery of large quantities of weapons and ammunition during raids around the kingdom.
    (AP, 10/20/03)

2003        Nov 3, Saudi police battled militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. Police arrested six al-Qaida suspects.
    (AP, 11/3/03)(AP, 11/4/03)

2003        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia 2 suspected militants blew themselves up in Mecca when security forces tried to arrest them. A 3rd was shot to death by police during a raid in Riyadh.
    (AP, 11/6/03)

2003        Nov 8, In Saudi Arabia a suicide car bombing that devastated a Riyadh housing complex, killing 17 people and wounding more than 120. Officials pointed to al-Qaida terrorists as responsible.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A1)(AP, 11/8/04)

2003        Nov 25, Saudi police killed 2 militants and seized a car bomb ready for detonation in post Ramadan celebrations.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 27,  Talal al-Rasheed, a prominent Saudi poet, was shot to death by attackers while on a hunting trip in Algeria.
    (AP, 11/30/03)

2003        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia issued the names and photos of its 26 most wanted terrorist suspects and increased protection around Western housing compounds in the capital.
    (AP, 12/7/03)

2003        Dec 7, Saudi security forces stormed a gas station and killed one of the country's most wanted terrorist suspects and a second militant.
    (AP, 12/8/03)

2003        Rachel Ehrenfeld authored “Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed and How to Stop It.” The book sold 23 copies in Britain, over the Internet. She later lost a libel case concerning the book brought in the English High Court of Justice by Saudi businessman Khalid bin Mahfouz, who was awarded ₤100,000 ($160,000).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funding_Evil)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.42)

2003        Dore Gold authored "Hatred's Kingdom: How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism."
    (WSJ, 3/27/03, p.D7)

2003        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 76% gain for the year.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)

2003        The Saudi-owned news channel al-Arabiya was launched from Dubai.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.25)

2003        A CIA report said that the Al-Rajhi Bank in Saudi Arabia had served as a conduit for terrorist transactions since at least the mid-1990s.
    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A10)

2003        Libya planned a covert operation to assassinate Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia according to 2004 testimony by 2 jailed participants.
    (SFC, 6/10/04, A10)

2003        Doctors at St. Vincent Medical Center in LA, Ca., performed a liver transplant on a Saudi citizen, who was 52nd on a transplant list. The Saudi Arabian Embassy paid $339,000 for the operation. In 2005 the hospital suspended its liver program after determining that the 2003 operation was improper.
    (SFC, 9/28/05, p.A7)

2004        Jan 8, Teams of Swiss police in 5 cantons arrested 8 suspected accomplices in the May 12 al Qaeda car bomb attack in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)

2004        Jan 29, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims from around the world gathered at the start of the annual Hajj.
    (AP, 1/29/04)

2004        Feb 1, In Saudi Arabia 251 Muslim worshipers died in a hajj stampede during the annual stoning of Satan ritual.
    (AP, 2/2/04)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 15, In Saudi Arabia authorities killed Khaled Ali Haj, a Yemeni, and Ibrahim bin Abdul-Aziz bin Mohammed al-Mezeini, a Saudi. Haj, who also uses the name Abu Hazim al-Sha'ir, was the "most dangerous" al-Qaida operative in the region. Haj was third on the government's list of Saudi Arabia's 26 most wanted militants.
    (AP, 3/16/04)

2004        Apr 10, Rania al-Baz, a popular Saudi TV host, was severely beaten by her husband. She suffered 13 facial fractures that required 12 operations. She allowed photos to be broadcast and opened discussions of ongoing violence against women in Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.A6)

2004        Apr 13, In Saudi Arabia militants near Unaizah opened fire on a police checkpoint at dawn, killing four police officers and fleeing in security agents' cars.
    (AP, 4/13/04)

2004        Apr 19, Saudi police seized 2 explosives packed SUVs on a highway outside Riyadh. It the 3rd day in a row that such a seizure was announced.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 21, Two car bombs blasted the Saudi security headquarters, killing at least 4 people and wounding 148.
    (AP, 4/21/04)(SFC, 4/22/04, p.A16)

2004        Apr 22, Saudi security forces killed five wanted militants and were pursuing others after shootouts that spread over two days in the port city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2004        May 1, In Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, suspected militants sprayed gunfire inside the offices of Houston-based ABB Ltd., an oil contractor, killing at least six people — including two Americans and three other Westerners — and wounding dozens. Police killed four brothers in a shootout after a car chase in which the attackers reportedly dragged the naked body of one victim behind their getaway car.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(SFC, 5/3/04, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.A1)

2004        May 10, Saudi oil ministers called on OPEC to pump more oil.
    (SFC, 5/11/04, p.A1)

2004        May 20, Four suspected Saudi militants and a policeman were killed in a shootout the Saudi city of Buraida.
    (Reuters, 5/21/04)

2004        May 28, In Saudi Arabia suspected Islamic militants sprayed gunfire inside two oil industry compounds on the Persian Gulf, killing at least 10 people including one American.
    (AP, 5/29/04)(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.A1)

2004        May 29, In Saudi Arabia gunmen shot down security guards and entered 2 office complexes in Khobar searching for and murdering anyone looking western.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.41)

2004        May 30, Saudi commandos stormed the expatriate resort of Khobar to free up to 60 foreign hostages seized by Islamic militant gunmen who had attacked oil industry compounds, killing 22 people. Americans were among those killed and taken captive. 3 suspects escaped.
    (AP, 5/31/04)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, Saudi security forces killed two suspected militants linked to a weekend shooting and hostage-taking.
    (AP, 6/2/04)

2004        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia Simon Chambers (36), an Irish cameraman working for the BBC, was killed in a shooting in Riyadh. A BBC correspondent was injured.
    (SFC, 6/7/04, A8)

2004        Jun 8, In Saudi Arabia an American citizen who worked for a US defense contractor was shot and killed in Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/8/04)

2004        Jun 12, In Saudi Arabia an American was kidnapped. An al-Qaida statement, posted on an Islamic Web site, showed a passport-size photo of a brown-haired man and a Lockheed Martin business card bearing the name Paul M. Johnson. Islamic militants shot and killed Kenneth Scroggs of Laconia, New Hampshire, in his garage in Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/13/04)(AP, 6/20/04)

2004        Jun 13, Saudi Arabia held a 3-day “national dialogue” in Medina on how women’s lives could be improved. On Jun 15, recommendations (19) were given to Crown Prince Abdullah.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.26)

2004        Jun 15, A Saudi al Qaeda group threatened to execute Paul M. Johnson Jr. within 72 hours unless fellow jihadists were released were released from prison.
    (SFC, 6/19/04, p.A15)

2004        Jun 18, A Saudi al-Qaida group said it killed American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., posting 3 photos on the Internet showing his body and severed head. Hours later Saudi security forces killed Abdulaziz al-Moqrin (31), a top al-Qaida leader, and 3 other militants in Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/18/04)(AP, 6/19/04)

2004        Jun 23, Saudi Arabia offered Islamic militants a limited amnesty, saying their lives would be spared if they surrendered but they would face the "full might" of state wrath if they did not. Prince Nayef said foreign residents may be allowed to carry guns.
    (AP, 6/23/04)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.A10)

2004        Jun 27, Saudi Arabia dispatched two planeloads of aid to Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 6/27/04)

2004        Jun, The Saudi parliament passed legislation overturning a law banning girls and women from participating in physical education and sports. In August the ministry of education announced that it had no intention of honoring the legislation.
    (SFC, 8/26/04, p.B1)
2004        Jun, Fawaz al-Nashimi (aka Turki bin Fuheid al-Muteiry), an al-Qaida operative, was killed in a gunbattle with Saudi forces. He was involved in the May 29 attack inside two oil industry compounds. In 2006 an al-Qaida statement identified him as the would-be 20th hijacker for the Sep. 11 attacks.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A3)

2004        Jul 1, Saudi security forces traded gunfire with militants in a Riyadh, killing one militant and wounding one. A police officer was killed and two were hurt.
    (AP, 7/2/04)

2004        Jul 12, A Sri Lankan woman was beheaded in the Saudi capital for murdering her employer. Bader el-Nisaa Mibari had been convicted of killing Sara bint Mohammed al-Haqeel, a Saudi woman, after trying to rob her with the help a male companion.
    (AP, 7/12/04)

2004        Jul 13, A confidant of Osama bin Laden (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harby) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

2004        Jul 16, A Saudi transport company said it had pulled out of Iraq to save the life of an Egyptian truck driver taken hostage by kidnappers who demanded the firm leave the country.
    (Reuters, 7/16/04)

2004        Jul 20, In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.
    (AP, 7/21/04)

2004        Jul 29, In Saudi Arabia Colin Powell met with Iraq’s PM Alawi to talk about a Muslim peacekeeping force.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 30, Abdurahman Alamoudi pleaded guilty in a Virginia court to moving cash from Libya and involvement in a plot to assassinate Saudi Prince Abdullah.
    (SFC, 7/31/04, p.A3)

2004        Aug 4, The official Saudi Press reported that municipal elections across Saudi Arabia, the first such polls in decades, have been have been pushed back two months to November.
    (AP, 8/4/04)

2004        Aug 6, Saudi officials reported the capture of Faris Ahmed Jamaan al-Showeel al Zahrani, No. 12 on their list of 26 most wanted terrorism suspects.
    (SFC, 8/7/04, p.A10)

2004        Sep 1, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 people were killed in a stampede to a newly opened Ikea branch.
    (SFC, 9/2/04, p.C2)

2004        Sep 2, In Saudi Arabia one policeman was killed and three others wounded in clashes with militants in a town northeast of Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/3/04)

2004        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia Edward Stuart Muirhead-Smith (55) was killed at the Max shopping center in eastern Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/16/04)

2004        Sep 26, A French national was shot and killed in the Saudi Arabian city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 9/26/04)

2004        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia's highest religious authority issued an edict barring the use of cell phones with built-in cameras, blaming them for "spreading obscenity."
    (AP, 9/30/04)

2004        Oct 16, Saudi security forces captured four suspected militants in the Khaleej neighborhood of Riyadh.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

2004        Nov 6, In an open letter to the Iraqi people and posted on the Internet, 26 Saudi scholars and religious preachers stressed that armed attacks launched by militant Iraqi groups on U.S. troops and their allies in Iraq were "legitimate" resistance.
    (AP, 11/6/04)

2004        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Abdullah launched $8 billion in development projects in Mecca.
    (WSJ, 11/9/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 16, Saudi police arrested 5 suspected militants in al-Qassim, 220 miles northwest of Riyadh, following a shootout that killed a policeman.
    (AP, 11/17/04)

2004        Nov 27, Saudi security forces killed a suspected militant in the Red Sea city of Jeddah.
    (AP, 11/27/04)

2004        Dec 6, In Saudi Arabia Islamic militants threw explosives at the gate of the heavily guarded US consulate in Jiddah in a bold assault, then forced their way into the building, prompting a gunbattle that left 9 people dead and several injured. In 2005 two AK-47 assault rifles used in the attack were later traced to Yemen’s Ministry of Defense.
    (AP, 10/12/05)(AP, 12/06/05)

2004        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia announced it was withdrawing its ambassador to Libya and ordered out Libya's envoy in response to reports that Tripoli plotted to assassinate the Saudi crown prince.
    (AP, 12/22/04)

2004        Dec 28, In Saudi Arabia security forces killed three suspected militants in a raid on their hideout in Riyadh.
    (AP, 12/29/04)

2004        Dec 29, In Saudi Arabia insurgents bombed two security headquarters in Riyadh, setting off violence that left 10 attackers and one bystander dead.
    (AP, 12/30/04)

2004        Carmen bin Ladin authored “Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia.” Carmen, the ex-wife of Osama’s older brother Yeslam, grew up in Geneva.
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.D8)
2004        In Saudi Arabia women until this year were legally required to conduct business through a male agent.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.86)
2004        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 85% gain for the year.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)

2005        Jan 1, In Saudi Arabia 2 men, a Pakistani and an Iraqi, were beheaded for smuggling in drugs.
    (AP, 1/1/05)
2005        Jan 1, Saudi Arabia was forecast for 2.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 25.7 million and GDP per head at $4,110.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.94)

2005        Jan 9, Saudi police killed four terrorists believed linked to al-Qaida after the militants fled their desert tent while throwing hand grenades at surrounding forces.
    (AP, 1/9/05)

2005        Jan 13, Saudi judicial officials said a religious court has sentenced 15 Saudis, including a woman, to as many as 250 lashes each and up to six months in prison for participating in a protest against the monarchy.
    (AP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 15, Police and militants fought a gun battle in a small Kuwaiti town near a US military logistics center, leaving one Saudi gunman dead and two policemen wounded.
    (AP, 1/15/05)

2005        Feb 5, The crown prince of Saudi Arabia called for the creation of an international anti-terrorism center to trade information in an effort to prevent attacks.
    (AP, 2/5/05)

2005        Feb 7, A Saudi woman was beheaded after she was convicted of murdering her mother-in-law. Noura bint Khalaf al-Harbi was found guilty of setting her mother-in-law, Noura bint Salem al-Harbi, on fire as she slept following a dispute.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 10, Male voters converged at polling stations in the Riyadh region to participate in city elections, marking the first time Saudis are taking part in a vote that largely conforms to international standards. Women were banned from casting ballots.
    (AP, 2/10/05)
2005        Feb 10, Saudi Arabia confirmed a 2nd case of polio from 2004 and feared pilgrims to Mecca might spread the disease.
    (SFC, 2/11/05, p.A13)

2005        Feb 12, Saudi newspapers said dozens of losing candidates in Saudi Arabia's first regular election will contest results from the opening round of municipal balloting, arguing that conservative religious candidates won unfairly by claiming support from clerics.
    (AP, 2/12/05)

2005        Mar 3, Men in eastern and southern Saudi Arabia turned out in the thousands to vote in municipal elections. They expect to provide their first say in decision-making in this absolute monarchy.
    (AP, 3/3/05)
2005        Mar 3, An Arab League meeting opened in Cairo. An Arab diplomat said Syria has told Arab countries it needs to keep 3,000 troops and early-warning stations inside Lebanon to maintain its security despite international pressure for a full withdrawal. Saudi Arabia told Syria to withdraw its troops.
    (AP, 3/3/05)(SFC, 3/4/05, p.A3)

2005        Mar 13, Saudi police killed an alleged Islamic militant and arrested three others in a shootout at a suspected terror cell hideout in the Red Sea city of Jiddah.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia beheaded 3 men in public in the northern city of al-Jawf where in 2003 they killed a deputy governor, a religious court judge and a police lieutenant.
    (AP, 4/3/05)
2005        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index reached a record 10853, up 28% for the year this far.
    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)

2005        Apr 3, In central Saudi Arabia a gun battle began that left 7 suspected al-Qaida militants killed in a shootout with Saudi security forces in ar-Rass.
    (AP, 4/4/05)

2005        Apr 5, Saudi police killed 2 more militants, bringing the total to 9, as security forces continued a tense standoff in ar-Rass. Among those killed were Moroccan Kareem Altohami al-Mojati and Saudi Saud Homood Obaid al-Otaibi, who were ranked 4 and 7 respectively on Saudi Arabia's list of 26 most wanted al-Qaida-linked terror suspects.
    (AP, 4/5/05)(SFC, 4/5/05, p.A3)

2005        Apr 6, Security forces killed one of Saudi Arabia's most wanted Islamic militants. At least 14 militants were killed over the 4 straight days of shootouts with extremists in different parts of the kingdom.
    (AP, 4/6/05)(SFC, 4/6/05, p.A3)

2005        Apr 21, Saudi authorities extended their limited experiment in democracy to the holiest cities of Islam with elections for some local council seats in Mecca and Medina, in the third and final round of the kingdom's first nationwide vote.
    (AP, 4/21/05)
2005        Apr 21, Islamic militants clashed with Saudi security forces in Islam's holiest city of Mecca and nearby Jiddah, killing two militants and two policemen.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

2005        Apr 25, President Bush sought relief from record-high gas prices and support for Middle East peace as he opened his Texas ranch to Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/25/05)

2005        May 8, In Saudi Arabia a Pakistani man was beheaded for attempting to smuggle heroin into the kingdom.
    (AP, 5/8/05)

2005        May 15, In Saudi Arabia 3 reform advocates were sentenced to terms ranging from six to nine years in prison, prompting a human rights activist to call their trial a "farce."
    (AP, 5/15/05)
2005        May 15, Ali al-Dimeeni (al-Domeini), already jailed more than a year in a Saudi prison outside Riyadh, was sentenced to nine years in prison for sowing dissent, disobeying his rulers and sedition. His 1998 novel "A Gray Cloud," centered on a dissident jailed for years in a desert nation prison where many others have done time for their political views.
    (AP, 5/25/05)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.51)

2005        May 27, King Fahd, Saudi Arabia's monarch for the last 23 years was hospitalized for unspecified tests.
    (AP, 5/28/05)

2005        Jun 15, OPEC agreed to increase its production quota by half a million barrels a day in an effort to cool high crude oil costs that have dampened the global economy.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 16, Board members of the UN atomic watchdog agency approved a deal that exempts Saudi Arabia from nuclear inspections, despite serious misgivings about the arrangement in an era of heightened proliferation fears.
    (AP, 6/16/05)

2005        Jun 18, A senior Saudi police officer was killed in a drive-by shooting in Mecca.
    (AP, 6/19/05)

2005        Jun 21, Saudi security forces killed two suspected terrorists accused of fatally shooting a senior security official outside his home.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2005        Jun 28, Saudi Arabia issued a list of 36 men wanted for acts of terror and called on people to report them to the police.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jul 8, In China Exxon Mobil Corp., Saudi Aramco and top Asian refiner Sinopec signed a $3.5 billion deal to expand a refinery in south China, sealing what they called the country's largest oil project.
    (Reuters, 7/8/05)

2005        Jul 25, Saudi authorities arrested a number of suspected militants in Arar, Medina and Riyadh. Among those arrested Mohammed Saeed Mohammed al-Sayam al-Umari (25) was No. 10 on Saudi list of 36 most wanted terrorists.
    (AP, 8/27/05)   

2005        Aug 1, King Fahd (83), Saudi ruler since 1982, died at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh. He moved Saudi Arabia closer to the US but ruled the nation in name only since suffering a stroke in 1995. His half brother, Crown Prince Abdullah, was named to replace him.
    (AP, 8/1/05)(Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)

2005        Aug 5, VP Dick Cheney, accompanied by former President George H.W. Bush and former Secretary of State Colin Powell, paid respects to new Saudi King Abdullah (81).
    (AP, 8/5/05)(Econ, 8/6/05, p.10)

2005        Aug 8, In Saudi Arabia King Abdullah pardoned 4 prominent activists who were jailed after criticizing the strict religious environment and the slow pace of democratic reform.
    (AP, 8/8/05)

2005        Aug 18, Saleh Mohammed al-Aoofi, Al-Qaida's leader in Saudi Arabia, was killed along with 5 others during clashes with police in the western city of Medina. Majed Hamed Abdullah al-Haasiri (29), who was No. 14 on a list of 36 most wanted terrorists sought for connection to terror attacks in the kingdom dating back to 2003, was killed in a shootout with police in Riyadh.
    (AP, 8/18/05)(AP, 8/27/05)

2005        Aug, Saudi Arabia granted a 15% pay raise to government employees, their 1st pay raise in 22 years.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.11)

2005        Sep 4, Saudi Arabia said it had signed a bilateral free trade agreement with the US.
2005        Sep 4, In eastern Saudi Arabia police fought running gun battles with al-Qaida militants in Dammam in clashes that killed two extremists and a police officer. The militants aimed to attack oil facilities.
    (AP, 9/4/05)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.A1)

2005        Sep 6, Saudi security forces stormed a villa in Dammam where Islamic militants were holed up, ending 3 days of fierce fighting that killed 4 policemen and a number of militants.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 8, The Saudi Interior Ministry said security forces killed five of Saudi Arabia's most-wanted al-Qaida militants in a three-day battle in an eastern city earlier this week and arrested 11 other suspects.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 15, The Saudi government ordered a Jiddah chamber of commerce to allow female voters and candidates.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 21, In Saudi Arabia 2 men were beheaded in Riyadh, after being convicted of kidnapping and raping a woman.
    (AP, 9/21/05)

2005        Sep 25, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir met with King Abdullah in the Saudi city of Jeddah to discuss cooperation between their countries and regional developments.
    (AP, 9/25/05)

2005        Sep, The novel “The Girls of Riyadh” by Rajaa al-Sanie (23) was published in Lebanon. Only pirated copies were available in Saudi Arabia. Rajaa Alsanea wrote the novel as a series of anonymous e-mails about the protagonists. In 2007 the book became available in English.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.A29)(WSJ, 6/29/07, p.W2)

2005        Oct 4, A new Syrian TV series began broadcasting around the Middle East. It tells the story of Arabs living in residential compounds in Saudi Arabia and the militant Islamists who want to blow them up so they can collect their rewards in heaven, 72 beautiful virgins.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 19, The International Organization for Migration (IMO) said "Ethiopian women and girls who migrate to Lebanon, Egypt, Yemen and Saudi Arabia suffer from maltreatment, physical, sexual and emotional abuses," in a report based on interviews with 443 women returning from the region.
    (AP, 10/20/05)

2005        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia was given a green light to join the World Trade Organization, in time to participate in December's crucial ministerial summit in Hong Kong.
    (AP, 10/29/05)

2005        Nov 8, The US State Department issued its 7th annual report to Congress on religious freedom. It cited Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Vietnam as restricting religious freedom.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 11, The World Trade Organization (WTO) approved Saudi Arabia's bid to become the 149th member of the global group, winding up a 12-year negotiating process slowed by the country's participation in the Arab League boycott of Israel.
    (AP, 11/11/05)

2005        Nov 13, Prince Saud al-Faisal, Saudi Arabia's foreign minister, said he is less worried that US policies in Iraq will bring on a civil war there, and pledged anew to contribute $1 billion for rebuilding that war-ravaged country's shattered infrastructure.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

2005        Nov 14, It was reported that a consortium led by Saudi Arabia's Oger Telecom has signed a deal to take a majority stake in state-owned telecommunications company Turk Telekom, sealing Turkey's largest privatization worth 6.55 billion dollars. Oger Telecom, part of the Oger group owned by the family of slain former Lebanese PM Rafiq Hariri, had won the tender for the 55% stake in July, in partnership with Italian operator Telecom Italia.
    (AFP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 17, Saudi judicial officials said a Saudi high-school chemistry teacher, accused of discussing religion with his students, was sentenced to 750 lashes and 40 months in prison for blasphemy following a trial on Nov 12.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 27, Two women were elected to a chamber of commerce in Jiddah, the first to win any such post in Saudi Arabia, where women are largely barred from political life.
    (AP, 11/30/05)

2005        Dec 6, In Saudi Arabia representatives of Islamic countries met ahead of a two-day summit, with delegates saying the world's largest Islamic organization must reform to face new challenges.
    (AP, 12/06/05)

2005        Dec 8, In Saudi Arabia leaders from more than 50 Muslim countries promised to fight extremist ideology, saying they would reform textbooks, restrict religious edicts and crack down on terror financing.
    (AP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 27, Saudi police arrested Mohammed Abdel-Rahman Mohammed al-Suwailmi, a terror suspect on the country's list of most wanted militants.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2005        Dec 28, Saudi police shot dead a militant on Saudi Arabia's most-wanted list, the second major terror suspect to die in the country in 24 hours.
    (AP, 12/28/05)

2005        Pascal Menoret authored “The Saudi Enigma: A History.”
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.87)
2005        Saudi Arabia enacted a law that banned state employees from saying anything in public that conflicts with official policy.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.53)

2006        Jan 5, In Saudi Arabia a building used as a hostel by pilgrims in Mecca collapsed as millions of Muslims converged for the annual hajj, and at least 76 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/7/06)

2006        Jan 12, Thousands of Muslim pilgrims rushing to complete a symbolic stoning ritual during the hajj tripped over luggage, causing a crush in which 363 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2006        Jan 23, Saudi King Abdullah met with Chinese President Hu Jintao in Beijing, amid efforts by China to secure overseas oil and gas reserves for its power-hungry economy.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 26, Saudi Arabia recalled its ambassador in Denmark to protest a published series of caricatures of the prophet Muhammad. Protests spread across the Muslim world for weeks, and dozens of people were killed.
    (AP, 1/26/07)

2006        Jan 31, Saudi Arabia and Jordan pressed the Islamic militant group Hamas to moderate its stand on Israel and to entice the defeated Fatah party into a deal to share power.
    (AP, 1/31/06)

2006        Feb 19, Almost five months after publishing 12 cartoons of the prophet to highlight what it described as self-censorship, Denmark’s Jyllands-Posten newspaper printed a full-page apology in a Saudi-owned pan-Arab newspaper.
    (AFP, 2/19/06)

2006        Feb 24, Suicide bombers in explosives-laden cars attempted to attack an oil processing facility at the Abqaiq facility  that handles about two-thirds of Saudi Arabia's petroleum output, but were stopped when guards opened fire on them, causing the cars to explode.
    (AP, 2/24/06)

2006        Feb 26, The Saudi Interior Ministry identified two Feb 24 attackers as Abdullah Abdul-Aziz al-Tweijri and Mohammed Saleh al-Gheith. Both were on a list of the 15 most-wanted terrorists the kingdom issued in June.
    (AP, 2/27/06)

2006        Feb 27, Saudi security forces in Riyadh shot dead five suspected terrorists believed to be involved in a foiled attack on the world's biggest oil processing complex. A sixth suspect was arrested. Fahd Faraaj al-Juwair, the leader of al-Qaida in Saudi Arabia, and two men who helped attack the world's largest oil-processing complex were among five militants killed during the police raids.
    (AP, 2/27/06)(AP, 2/28/06)

2006        Feb 28, Iraqi border guards captured, Abdullah Salah al-Harbi, a Saudi who admitted he was involved in the suicide attack on the Abqaiq oil facility in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 5, French President Jacques Chirac on a trip to Saudi Arabia preached greater tolerance and respect after the publication of satirical cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad a month ago whipped up protests around the world.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar, Persian Gulf stock markets suffered their 1st serious correction after years of 6-7% annual gains. Stock market reversals in Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the UAR, along with Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia triggered outrage among local small investors.
    (WSJ, 3/27/06, p.C1)

2006        Mar 29, The Saudi Press Agency reported that Saudi authorities had arrested 40 suspected members of al-Qaida, including some allegedly involved in last month's attempted bombing of a key oil complex, and seized a large cache of weapons and explosives.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Apr 6, Japan said it would launch free trade talks with six Gulf kingdoms that provide three-quarters of its oil imports, during a visit by a Saudi crown prince aimed at expanding business ties.
    (AP, 4/6/06)
2006        Apr 6, Cheese and butter from the Danish company Arla were back on supermarket shelves in Saudi Arabia after an Islamic group ended a boycott of the dairy producer sparked by Denmark's publication of drawings of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Apr 15, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz began a two-day visit to Pakistan during which he is expected to discuss a possible arms deal.
    (AFP, 4/15/06)

2006        Apr 18, A security official said Saudi authorities arrested five suspected terrorists linked to the February 24 deadly attack on the world's largest oil processing facility.
    (AP, 4/18/06)

2006        Apr 22, Saudi Arabia and China signed defense, security and trade agreements in Riyadh on the first day of Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        Apr 30, Saudi King Abdullah issued a decree lowering domestic gasoline prices by about 25%. That would lower the cost to about 16 cents per liter.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2006        Apr, Saudi Arabia announced plans to build an electrified fence along its 560-mile border with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.A1)

2006        May 9, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia won seats on the new UN Human Rights Council despite their poor human rights records. Two rights abusers, Iran and Venezuela, were defeated.
    (AP, 5/10/06)

2006        May 16, Saudi newspapers reported that King Abdullah has told Saudi editors to stop publishing pictures of women as they could make young men go astray.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        Jun 10, Three Guantanamo Bay detainees, 2 from Saudi Arabia and one from Yemen,  hanged themselves with nooses made of sheets and clothes, bringing further condemnation of the isolated camp where hundreds of men have been held for years without charge. Yasser Talal al-Zahrani (21) of Saudi Arabia, captured in Pakistan in 2002, was one of the 3 Gitmo detainees who committed suicide.
    (AP, 6/11/06)(Econ, 6/17/06, p.92)

2006        Jun 23, Saudi security forces stormed a suspected al-Qaida hideout in Riyadh, killing six militants and arresting a seventh after an exchange of gunfire.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 24, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said security forces had arrested 42 suspected terrorists, including four foreign nationals, allegedly involved in earlier attacks across the kingdom. 27 of the detainees, including an Ethiopian and two Somalis, were rounded up May 9-23 in Riyadh, Mecca, the Eastern Region province and the Hafer al-Baten province that borders Iraq. An Iraqi and three Saudis were detained in a June 17 raid on a desert camp in Hafer al-Baten. Another nine, all Saudis, also were captured at a desert hideout in Hafer al-Baten. Two more suspected were arrested after the June 23 raid.
    (AP, 6/24/06)

2006        Jul 8, Saudi officials said 7 suspected terrorists had escaped from a prison in Riyadh a few days earlier.
    (AP, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 21, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has ordered 76 artillery howitzers from the French armaments manufacturer Giat Industries as defense minister Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz completed a two-day visit.
    (AFP, 7/21/06)

2006        Aug 18, The Financial Times reported that Britain has agreed to a multi-billion-dollar defense deal to supply 72 Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 21, Saudi police killed two armed men during clashes in the Red Sea port of Jeddah.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Sep 8, It was reported that Saudi Arabia’s religious police have issued a decree in Jiddah and Mecca banning the sale of the pets, seen as a sign of Western influence.
    (AP, 9/8/06)

2006        Sep 9, It was reported that some 15,000 students from Saudi Arabia were enrolling on college campuses across the United States this semester under a new educational exchange program brokered by President Bush and Saudi King Abdullah.
    (AP, 9/9/06)

2006        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia's state-run news agency reported that the king gave new powers to his brothers and nephews in an overhaul of the way the kingdom chooses future monarchs, in what appeared to be an attempt to defuse internal power struggles. King Abdullah established the allegiance council, a body of 30-odd senior princes, as a new succession mechanism aimed in the long term to choose the crown prince.
    (AP, 10/20/06)(AFP, 6/16/12)
2006        Oct 20, Shiite and Sunni religious figures met in Mecca in a bid to stop sectarian bloodshed, and issued a series of edicts forbidding violence between Iraq's two Muslim sects.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

2006        Nov 25, US Vice President Dick Cheney arrived in Saudi Arabia for talks with King Abdullah, apparently seeking the Sunni royal family's influence and tribal connections to calm Iraq after an especially violent week..
    (AP, 11/25/06)

2006        Dec 2, Saudi news said authorities have arrested 136 suspected militants over the past three months, accusing some of plotting to carry out suicide attacks inside the kingdom.
    (AP, 12/3/06)

2006        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia said it had fired a security adviser who wrote in The Washington Post that the world's top oil exporter would intervene in Iraq once the United States withdraws troops.  Saudi Arabia beheaded a Pakistani citizen and his daughter for smuggling heroin into the kingdom. The kingdom beheaded 83 people in 2005 and 35 people in 2004.
    (AP, 12/6/06)(Reuters, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia armed men shot and killed two guards outside a prison in the western city of Jiddah before taking cover in a residential building where they were surrounded by Saudi security forces.
    (AP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 10, The oil-rich Arab states on the Persian Gulf said that they will consider starting a joint nuclear program for peaceful purposes. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2006        Dec 11, More than 30 prominent Islamic clerics from Saudi Arabia called on Sunni Muslims around the Middle East to support their brethren in Iraq against Shiites and praised the insurgency.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 26, The Saudi government said it had released 18 men who were detained after returning to their homeland from the US military prison in Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 12/26/06)

2006        Dec 28, Nearly 3 million Muslims from around the world, chanting and raising their hands to heaven, marched through a desert valley outside Mecca on the first day of the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        William Simpson authored “The Prince: The Secret Story of the World’s Most Intriguing Royal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan.” Bandar (b.1949) had served over 20 years as Saudi Arabia’s ambassador in Washington (1983-2005).
    (www.saudiembassy.net/Country/Government/BandarBio.asp)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.86)
2006        The Saudi offshoot of Emaar, one of Dubai’s big-three developers, raised 2.55 billion riyals ($680 million) to build a metropolis on the Red Sea coast. The King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) was due for completion in 2016.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.38)

2007        Jan 3, In Saudi Arabia Muslims circled the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site, for a final time, bringing to a close what may have been the largest hajj pilgrimage ever.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

2007        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia said it would begin a 158,000 barrel-a-day cut in oil production effective Feb 1.
    (WSJ, 1/30/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 30, The Saudi foreign minister said Saudi Arabia and Iran are working together to try to calm the crises in Iraq and Lebanon.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan 30, Jamal Khalifa, a Saudi citizen married to a sister of Osama bin Laden, was killed when gunmen broke into his house in village in Madagascar in an apparent robbery.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 3, The interior ministry spokesman said Saudi police have arrested 10 people who are accused of collecting donations and recruiting on behalf of militant groups.
    (AP, 2/3/07)

2007        Feb 4, A Saudi newspaper reported that a Saudi Arabian judge sentenced 20 foreigners to receive lashes and spend several months in prison after convicting them of attending a party where alcohol was served and men and women danced.
    (AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 7, In Saudi Arabia rival Palestinian leaders began open-ended talks in Mecca optimistic that they could reach an agreement to end their bloody street battles and resume the peace process with Israel.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, A Fatah official in Saudi Arabia said that rival Palestinian factions had reached an agreement on how to divide up Cabinet posts in a power-sharing government.
    (AP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 11, President Vladimir Putin, making the first visit by a Russian leader to Saudi Arabia, met King Abdullah and other senior officials for talks that touched on regional tensions including Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 17, A US human rights watchdog that recently sent a team to Saudi Arabia to investigate abuses said in a new report the kingdom keeps thousands of prisoners in jail without charge, sentences children to death and oppresses women.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Feb 19, A Saudi court ordered the bodies of four Sri Lankans to be displayed in a public square after being beheaded for armed robbery.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 21, Seven Saudis released from the US prison in Guantanamo Bay returned home and were promptly detained to see if they had terrorist connections.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 26, Three Frenchmen who lived in Saudi Arabia were killed by gunmen on the side of a desert road leading to the holy city of Medina in an area restricted to Muslims only. Soon after a 4th died from his wounds. An investigation later revealed that Waleed bin Mutlaq al-Radadi, among the kingdom's most wanted terrorists, was the mastermind and one of the triggermen in the shooting. Al-Radadi was killed on April 6 in a gunbattle with Saudi forces.
    (AP, 2/26/07)(AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Feb, Saudi Arabia arrested 10 intellectuals for signing a polite petition suggesting it was time for the kingdom to consider a transition to constitutional monarchy.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.54)

2007        Mar 3, Saudi Arabia's king personally welcomed Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad upon his arrival, a rapprochement many hope will help calm sectarian tensions threatening the Middle East. The leaders pledged to fight the spread of sectarian strife in the Middle East, which they said was the biggest danger facing the region.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 26, Israel welcomed the idea of a regional peace summit and Saudi Arabia suggesting it would consider changes in a dormant peace initiative to make it more acceptable to Israel.
    (AP, 3/26/07)

2007        Mar 29, Arab leaders at their summit in Riyadh agreed on a call for Israel to accept their land-for-peace offer and open direct negotiations with the Arabs. Unlike past summits that at times saw overt feuds break out, the gathering of Arab kings, emirs and presidents showed unusual public unity as it revived the peace offer, which they first made in 2002 only to meet rejection from Israel.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Mar, Britain's anti-fraud agency told a private OECD meeting in Paris that they had evidence that BAE paid more than 70 million pounds ($113 million) to a Saudi prince with influence over arms deal contracts. A US diplomatic cable regarding this was only made public in 2011.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2007        Apr 2, Saudi Arabia signaled it is unlikely to accept an Israeli invitation to a regional peace conference, saying that Israel must first stop mistreating Palestinians and move to withdraw from Arab lands.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 5, US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said that she raised the issue of Saudi Arabia's lack of female politicians with Saudi government officials on the last stop of her Mideast tour.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 6, In Saudi Arabia Waleed bin Mutlaq al-Radadi, among the kingdom's most wanted terrorists, was killed in a gunbattle with Saudi forces. Al-Radadi was implicated in the Feb 26 killing of 4 French nationals.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 15, The official Saudi news agency reported that Sudan has signed a joint agreement with the UN and the African Union that defines their respective roles in Darfur.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 27, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said police had arrested 172 Islamic militants, some of whom had trained abroad as pilots so they could fly aircraft in attacks on Saudi Arabia's oil fields. A spokesman said all that remained in the plot "was to set the zero hour." More than $32.4 million was seized in the operation, one of the largest sweeps against terror cells in the kingdoms.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        Apr 29, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah held an unannounced meeting with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss the recent escalation in Israeli-Palestinian tensions. Saudi Arabia banned the sale of concentrated fertilizer, a favorite component of homemade terrorist bombs.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(Econ, 5/5/07, p.60)

2007        May 3, African neighbors Sudan and Chad signed a Saudi-brokered reconciliation deal in Saudi Arabia, requiring both sides to cooperate with the United Nations to stabilize Darfur and the adjacent region in Chad.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 5, Prince Abdul-Majid bin Abdul-Aziz (65), the governor of Mecca, died after a long illness.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 8, A newspaper owned by Saudi Arabia's royal family said one of seven recently exposed Saudi terrorist cells used Syria as a base for coordinating with al-Qaida in Iraq and held training camps in the desert of neighboring Yemen.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, Saudi authorities beheaded an Ethiopian woman convicted of killing an Egyptian man over a dispute. Khadija Bint Ibrahim Moussa was the second woman to be executed this year. The kingdom last beheaded two women in 2005. Beheadings are carried out with a sword in a public square.
    (AP, 5/9/07)
2007        May 9, In France Nayef al-Shaalan, a Saudi Prince, was sentenced in absentia to 10 years in jail on charges of involvement in a cocaine smuggling gang.
    (AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 30, A Saudi Arabian detainee died at Guantanamo Bay prison and the US military said he apparently committed suicide.
    (AP, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 7, British media reported that Saudi Arabia’s Prince Bandar bin Sultan pocketed about $2 billion in secret payments as part of an $80 billion arms deal between Britain and Saudi Arabia first signed in 1985.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)

2007        Jun 23, In Saudi Arabia a judge postponed the trial of 3 members of the religious police for their alleged involvement in the death of a man arrested after being seen with a woman who was not his relative.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jul 15, The Los Angeles Times reported that about 45 percent of all foreign militants targeting US troops and Iraqi security forces were from Saudi Arabia, 15 percent from Syria and Lebanon, and 10 percent from North Africa.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 17, The US freed 16 Saudis from Guantanamo and flew them home, where they were taken into custody for investigation of possible links to terrorism.
    (WSJ, 1/17/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 30, UN inspectors visited a nuclear reactor being built in central Iran, a facility that has been off-limits since April. Iran's foreign ministry spokesman criticized a US plan to sell state-of-the-art weapons to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Jul 31, In Egypt US Sec. of State Rice and Defense Secretary Robert Gates made a joint show of diplomatic force during two days of meetings with Arab allies, part of an 11th-hour effort to rally diplomatic and practical help for the US-backed Shiite-led government in Baghdad. The tour opened talks on a proposed US arms package for Arab states worth more than $20 billion. US officials extended a 10-year pledge to continue $1.3 billion in annual aid to Egypt’s military. Military aid to Israel was raised to $3 billion. Weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and 5 smaller monarchies was said to be $20 billion. Total US military aid to the region over the next decade amounted to $63 billion.
    (AP, 7/31/07)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.39)

2007        Aug 17, Saudi King Abdullah ordered two aid packages worth 20 million dollars each be dispatched to Sudan and Mauritania to help the impoverished African countries hit by severe floods.
    (AFP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 28, Journalists and diplomats said Saudi Arabia has banned the influential Arab newspaper Al Hayat from distribution in the kingdom, just days after it reported a Saudi man had served as a key figure for an al-Qaida front group in Iraq.
    (AP, 8/28/07)

2007        Sep 6, A Pentagon spokesman said 16 detainees from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, have been transferred to the custody of Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, Saudi Arabia and an influential Lebanese politician joined calls by Pakistan for former prime minister Nawaz Sharif to scrap plans to return to the country next week.
    (AP, 9/8/07)

2007        Sep 10, Former PM Nawaz Sharif returned to Pakistan from a seven-year exile, hoping to campaign against the country's US-allied military ruler, but was immediately charged with corruption and deported to Saudi Arabia hours later. Pro-Taliban militants freed more than 260 Pakistani troops who were kidnapped nearly two weeks ago in a restive tribal region near the border with Afghanistan.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 16, Saudi King Abdullah oversaw the signing in Jiddah of a reconciliation agreement negotiated by several Somali factions in an attempt to stabilize their country and battle the Islamic opposition.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 17, Saudi Arabia announced it has signed a 4.43 billion pound (8.86 billion dollar) deal to buy 72 Eurofighter planes, after tortuous negotiations on one of the largest ever British export orders.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Oct 5, Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, Saudi Arabia's king, announced an overhaul of the country's judicial system, fulfilling a pledge he made several months ago to reform the current heavily-criticized administration.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7029308.stm)(Econ, 10/13/07, p.51)

2007        Oct 6, A Saudi newspaper said the Saudi Arabian government will temporarily release 55 prisoners recently transferred from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and will give each of them about $2,600 to celebrate the upcoming Muslim holiday of Eid al-Fitr.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 23, First lady Laura Bush helped launch a screening facility in Saudi Arabia as part of a U.S.-Saudi initiative to raise breast cancer awareness in the kingdom where doctors struggle to break long-held taboos about the disease.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 30, In London Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah received a lavish welcome from Queen Elizabeth II as he started a state visit amid angry protests and headlines after accusing Britain of anti-terrorism failures. The Policy Exchange, an independent think tank, said Agencies linked to the Saudi government have distributed extremist literature to mosques and Islamic centers in Britain.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, In London King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia met PM Gordon Brown to discuss Middle East issues and counter-terrorism, amid a swirl of protests.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 6, In the Vatican Benedict XVI raised concerns about restrictions on Christian worship in Saudi Arabia in the first meeting ever between a pope and a reigning Saudi king.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 9, Saudi authorities beheaded Saudi citizen Khalaf al-Anzi in Riyadh for kidnapping and raping a teenager.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 10, Saudi authorities received a group of 14 Saudis Saturday from the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Saudi authorities beheaded a Pakistani for drug trafficking. This execution brought to 131 the number of people beheaded in the kingdom this year. Saudi Arabia beheaded 38 people last year and 83 people in 2005.
    (AP, 11/10/07)

2007        Nov 12, Airbus said it was building a custom, 380 VIP double-decker jet for Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal with a price tag of over $320 million.
    (AP, 11/12/07)

2007        Nov 14, A Saudi court sentenced a woman (19) who had been gang raped to six months in jail and 200 lashes, more than doubling her initial penalty for being in the car of a man who was not a relative. The court also roughly doubled prison sentences for the seven men convicted of raping the woman. Their new sentences range from two to nine years. The court also banned the lawyer from defending her, confiscated his license to practice law and summoned him to a disciplinary hearing later this month.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 18, In eastern Saudi Arabia an explosion and fire on a gas pipeline killed 40 workers. The cause of the fire was an accident during maintenance work and Aramco said it did not expect a disruption in gas supplies.
    (AP, 11/18/07)(AP, 11/20/07)

2007        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia and other Arab nations grudgingly agreed to attend an upcoming US-sponsored Mideast peace conference, despite failing to get any guarantee of Israeli concessions.
    (AP, 11/23/08)

2007        Nov 28, Authorities in Saudi Arabia announced the arrest of 208 suspected terrorists in six cells and thwarted several planned attacks in the kingdom's largest terror sweep to date. They included 8 al-Qaida linked men allegedly planning to attack oil installations.
    (AP, 11/28/07)

2007        Dec 16, Millions of Muslims from around the world gathered in Mecca for the start of the annual Islamic hajj pilgrimage, as the Saudi Interior Ministry announced tough security precautions.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 17, In Saudi Arabia a gang-rape victim who was sentenced to six months in prison and 200 lashes for being alone with a man not related to her was pardoned by the Saudi king after the case sparked rare criticism from the United States, the kingdom's top ally.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 21, In Saudi Arabia the annual 5-day hajj come to a close as some 3 million pilgrims participated.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 23, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said police have arrested 28 men for allegedly planning to attack holy sites around Mecca and Medina during the recently finished Muslim hajj.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        The population of Saudi Arabia passed 24 million. The country imported $6 billion in food this year.
    (WSJ, 12/12/07, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/26/08, p.A12)

2008        Jan 12, Saudi authorities beheaded an Indonesian maid convicted of killing her employer. The Interior Ministry said the maid used a pillow to suffocate her employer Aisha Al Makhaled and then stole her jewelry in the southern province of Asir.
    (AP, 1/12/08)

2008        Jan 14, In Saudi Arabia President Bush, on his first visit to this oil-rich kingdom, delivered a major arms sale to its ally in a region.
    (AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 15, In Saudi Arabia Pres. Bush urged OPEC nations to put more oil on the world market and warned that soaring prices could cause an economic slowdown in the US. The kingdom's oil minister said Saudi Arabia will raise oil production when the market justifies it.
    (AP, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 21, In Saudi Arabia the daily Al-Watan, which is deemed close to the Saudi government, reported that the Interior Ministry issued a circular to hotels asking them to accept lone women, as long as their information is sent to a local police station.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia said it had killed some 158,000 chickens after the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain was found at an infected farm. The agriculture ministry also said more than 4.5 million fowl have been killed in provinces around the capital, but it did not specify when the killing took place.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 14, A leading human rights group appealed to Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah to stop the execution of a woman accused of witchcraft and performing supernatural acts.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 23, In Saudi Arabia bus plunged over a cliff, killing at least 25 people on board.
    (AP, 2/24/08)

2008        Mar 3, Saudi police arrested 28 suspected militants accused of trying to rebuild al-Qaida’s terror network in the kingdom.
    (WSJ, 3/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 22, US Vice President Dick Cheney completing a two-day stay in Saudi Arabia, discussed ways to stabilize the energy market with Saudi King Abdullah.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 23, Saudi Arabia said inflation reached a 27-year high of 8.7% in February.
    (WSJ, 3/24/08, p.A6)

2008        Mar 24, Saudi Arabia said its king would send a lower level diplomat to the March 29 Arab League summit in Syria, which hoped to help solve the stalemate in Lebanon.
    (WSJ, 3/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 25, King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia made a proposal for dialogue among the world’s monotheistic religions. Abdullah said Saudi Arabia's top clerics gave him a green light.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Apr 13, The Saudi Arabia beheaded two Nigerian men convicted of smuggling cocaine into the kingdom. 42 people have been beheaded this year, according to an AP count.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

2008        May 2, In Saudi Arabia a German-based quartet staged the first-ever performance of European classical music in a public venue before a mixed gender, largely expatriate audience.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

2008        May 16, Pres. Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia and appealed for increased oil production just as prices hit another record high.
    (AP, 5/16/08)

2008        May 19, Matrook al-Faleh was arrested at King Saud University in the Saudi capital Riyadh, where he teaches political science. A rights group said it came after al-Faleh publicly criticized conditions in a prison where two other human rights activists are serving jail terms. Faleh was released in January, 2009.
    (AP, 5/25/08)(AP, 1/11/09)

2008        May 23, A UN food aid agency said the response to its appeal for money to help meet soaring fuel and food costs went beyond what it had hoped to collect, saying $500 million from Saudi Arabia means it won't have to cut rations.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 24, In Saudi Arabia authorities beheaded a local man convicted of armed robbery and raping a woman. The execution brings the number of people beheaded this year to 55.
    (AP, 5/24/08)

2008        Jun 5, In Italy a 3-day UN summit aimed at fighting hunger worldwide ended with pledges to boost food output, calls to cut trade barriers and more research on biofuels. Just before the meeting Saudi Arabia announced a donation of $500 million.
    (WSJ, 6/6/08, p.A10)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.70)

2008        Jun 20, In Saudi Arabia religious police arrested 21 allegedly homosexual men and confiscated large amounts of alcohol at a large gathering of young men at a rest house in Qatif.
    (AP, 6/21/08)

2008        Jun 22, Saudi Arabia held meeting in Jiddah between oil producing and consuming nations as a way to show that it was not deaf to international cries that high oil prices have caused social and economic turmoil. Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi said Saudi Arabia is willing to produce more oil if customers need it without citing any specific output increase. Britain’s PM Gordon Brown called for cash-rich Gulf nations to invest in renewable and nuclear energy production in Britain and elsewhere.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 25, Saudi officials said authorities have arrested hundreds of suspected al-Qaida-linked militants this year. Some of those arrested are suspected of plotting attacks against the kingdom's oil and economic installations. Of the 701 arrested 181 were released because there was no proof linking them to the terror network.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jul 8, A human rights group said domestic workers in Saudi Arabia often suffer abuse that in some cases amounts to slavery, as well as sexual violence and lashings for spurious allegations of theft or witchcraft.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 16, In Spain King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia kicked off an interfaith conference in Madrid, an effort to bring Muslims, Christians and Jews closer together amid a world that often puts the three faiths at odds.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Spain a Saudi-organized conference of the world's great religions called for an international agreement to combat terrorism, "a universal phenomenon that requires unified international efforts."
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 28, Tarek bin Laden signed a deal with Djibouti to build Noor City, the first of a hundred “Cities of Light” that the Saudi Binladen Group planned around the world. Plans called for the city to have 2.5 million people by 2025 and 4.5 million for its Yemeni twin.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.50)(www.railpage.com.au/f-p1093077.htm)

2008        Jul 30, Saudi Arabia's Islamic religious police banned the sale dogs and cats as pets, as well as walking them in public due to “the rising of phenomenon of men using cats and dogs to make passes at women and pester families" as well as "violating proper behavior in public squares and malls."
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 13, An alleged assault by Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (b.1955) reportedly took place on a young model (20) on a yacht on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza. An investigating magistrate on the resort island closed the case in 2010 on grounds of insufficient evidence. In 2011 Spain reopened a rape probe after tests done by a forensic lab found semen in the woman and traces of a sedative called nordazepam.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2008        Sep 11, Sheik Saleh al-Lihedan (79), Saudi Arabia's top judiciary official, issued a religious decree saying it is permissible to kill the owners of satellite TV networks that broadcast immoral content. On Sep 14 he adjusted his comments saying owners who broadcast immoral content should be brought to trial and sentenced to death if other penalties do not deter them.
    (AP, 9/12/08)(SFC, 9/15/08, p.A3)

2008        Oct 12, The United Arab Emirates said it would guarantee domestic bank deposits and with Saudi Arabia promised fresh financial support to domestic banks.
    (WSJ, 10/13/08, p.A5)

2008        Oct 21, Saudi Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal confirmed for the first time that the kingdom has been sponsoring talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban militia.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Saudi Arabia’s interior minister said authorities have indicted 991 suspected militants on charges that they participated in terrorist attacks carried out in the kingdom over the last five years.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Nov 2, British PM Gordon Brown said he is confident that Saudi Arabia will contribute to the International Monetary Fund's bailout reserves after he promised business leaders in the Gulf that they would have a say in any future new world economic order.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 6, A group of Saudi activists began a rare public hunger strike to demand judiciary reform and draw attention to the detention without trial of 11 political reformists.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 15, Gunmen hijacked a freighter with 23 crew off the coast of Somalia. The crew of the Japanese-owned Chemstar Venus consisted of five South Koreans and 18 Filipinos. Somali pirates hijacked the Sirius Star, a newly commissioned supertanker, more than 450 nautical miles southeast of Mombasa, Kenya, along with its 25-member crew. The ship, owned by Saudi oil company Aramco, was capable of carrying about 2 million barrels of oil. The ship was released on Jan 9, 2009.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)(AP, 1/9/09)

2008        Nov 18, Owners of a Saudi oil supertanker hijacked by Somali pirates grappled with how to respond, as navies patrolling the region said they would not intervene to stop or free the captured vessel.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia slashed a key lending rate and cut reserve requirements amid intensifying economic headwinds.
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)

2008        Nov, A US diplomatic cable said donors in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are sending an estimated $100 million annually to radical Islamic schools in Pakistan that back militancy. The cable was leaked to the public on May 22, 2011.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2008        Dec 5, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims from all over the world gathered in Mecca, on the eve of the start of the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims converged on a rocky desert hill outside Mecca to perform the ritual of forgiveness marking the climax of the annual hajj.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia Muslims poured into Mecca for a final day of the hajj.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The European Commission awarded the first Chaillot Prize to the Al-Nahda Philanthropic Society for Women, a Saudi charity which helps divorced and underprivileged women.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 14, It was reported that Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, who owns a double-decker "flying palace" and recently raised his bet on Citigroup, lost $4 billion in the past year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)

2008        Steve Coll authored “The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century.”
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.92)
2008        David B. Ottaway authored “The King’s Messenger: Prince Bandar bin Sultan and America’s Tangled Relationship with Saudi Arabia.”
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.101)
2008        Saudi Arabia abandoned its self-sufficiency agricultural program when it discovered that farmers were burning through water coming from a non-replenishable aquifer.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

2009        Jan 9, Somali pirates released the MV Sirius Star, an oil-laden Saudi supertanker seized on Nov 15, after receiving a $3 million ransom.
    (AP, 1/9/09)

2009        Jan 14, Saudi Arabia's most senior cleric was quoted as saying it is permissible for 10-year-old girls to marry and those who think they're too young are doing the girls an injustice.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 19, The Saudi king said his country will donate $1 billion to help rebuild the Gaza Strip after the devastating Israeli offensive and told Israel that an Arab initiative offering peace will not remain on the table forever. The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency cut its benchmark lending rate a half point to 2%, and its deposit rate by three-quarters point to .75%.
    (AP, 1/19/09)(WSJ, 1/20/09, p.A11)

2009        Jan 20, Saudi Arabia’s prince Alwaleed bin Talal said his conglomerate Kingdom Holding Co. lost about $7.9 billion in 2008.
    (WSJ, 1/21/09, p.A11)

2009        Jan 21, In Pakistan a Saudi called Zabi ul Taifi was among seven Al-Qaida suspects caught when government forces mounted a raid near the northwestern city of Peshawar.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 23, Said Ali al-Shihri, a Saudi man released from Guantanamo after spending nearly six years inside the US prison camp, is now the No. 2 of Yemen's al-Qaida branch, according to a purported Internet statement from the terror network.
    (AP, 1/23/09)

2009        Feb 2, Saudi Arabia issued a list of its 83 most wanted suspects living abroad, including six Saudis released from Guantanamo Bay, and asked Interpol for help in arresting them. On Feb 10 Interpol put out an international alert for 85 alleged terrorists suspected of plotting attacks against Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 2/2/09)(WSJ, 2/11/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 14, Saudi King Abdullah (86), in an apparent bid to reform the religious establishment,  dismissed the head of the feared religious police and a hard-line cleric who issued an edict last year saying it was permissible to kill owners of satellite TV stations that show "immoral" content. King Abdullah also appointed Noura al Fayez as deputy minister of women’s education, the 1st female to hold a ministerial post.
    (AP, 2/14/09)(SSFC, 2/15/09, p.A6)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.48)

2009        Feb 17, The Yemeni Interior Ministry announced the surrender of Abu al-Hareth Muhammad al-Oufi, a former Guantanamo detainee who later became an al-Qaida field commander. He was handed over to Saudi authorities.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 19, Naser Abdel Karim al-Wahishi, Yemen's most wanted fugitive and leader of al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula, used an audio recording to urge Yemenis to rise up against the government and called on Arabs in Saudi Arabia and Gulf countries to help their brothers in Yemen.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 25, Saudi police were reported to have clashed with Shiite pilgrims over several days near a cemetery in Islam's second-holiest city, leading Shiite Cleric Sheik Nimr al-Nimr  to appeal to the king to put a stop to the "insults" of the religious police. Shiites make up a small minority of the country's 22 million people. Following the incendiary sermon, more than 35 people were arrested in a government crackdown and al-Nimr went into hiding.
    (AP, 2/25/09)(AP, 4/1/09)

2009        Mar 3, In Saudi Arabia Khamisa Sawadi, a 75-year-old widow, was sentenced to 40 lashes and four months in jail for mingling with two young men who are not close relatives. The case drew new criticism for the kingdom's ultraconservative religious police and judiciary.
    (AP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 10, In Saudi Arabia a huge sandstorm blanketed the city of Riyadh with a thick layer of yellow dust.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 11, Saudi Arabia hosted the leaders of Egypt and Syria in an effort to persuade Damascus to move away from Iran and join with US-allied Arab countries in working to blunt Tehran's influence.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 22, A group of Saudi clerics urged the kingdom's new information minister to ban women from appearing on TV or in newspapers and magazines, making clear that the country's hardline religious establishment is skeptical of a new push toward moderation.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 25, Fahad al-Ruwaily, a senior al-Qaida leader, returned to Saudi Arabia voluntarily and turned himself in. He was on a list of the kingdom's 85 most wanted militants living abroad.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 27, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (84) appointed his half-brother, Prince Nayef (75), as his 2nd deputy prime minister.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.51)

2009        Apr 1, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir arrived in Saudi Arabia for a brief pilgrimage, his latest trip abroad in defiance of an international arrest warrant against him.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)

2009        Apr 7, Saudi authorities beheaded 3 Pakistanis convicted of killing a fellow Pakistani during a jewelry heist. This brought to 20 the number of beheadings in the kingdom this year.
    (AP, 4/7/09)

2009        Apr 11, A Saudi man convicted of rape and robbery was beheaded, becoming the 22nd prisoner to be executed by sword this year in the kingdom. An Interior Ministry statement says the man committed the crimes after drinking alcohol.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 30, In Saudi Arabia a lawyer said an 8-year-old girl has divorced her middle-aged husband after her father forced her to marry him last year in exchange for about $13,000. Saudi Arabia has come under increasing criticism at home and abroad for permitting child marriages. The United States, a close ally of the conservative Muslim kingdom, has called child marriage a "clear and unacceptable" violation of human rights.
    (AP, 5/1/09)

2009        May 12, The US won a seat on the UN Human Rights Council for the first time along with Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia, four countries accused of serious human rights violations.
    (SFC, 5/13/09, p.A2)

2009        May 23, It was reported that Saudi Arabian investors were spending $100 million to raise wheat, barley and rise on land leased from the government of Ethiopia. The World Food Program estimated that it would spend almost the same amount between 2007 and 2011 to provide 230,000 tons of food aid to some 4.6 million Ethiopians threatened by hunger and malnutrition.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.61)

2009        May 28, The Saudi Arabia, Monetary Agency froze the bank accounts of Maan al-Sanea, head of the Saad Group and ranked recently as the 3rd richest Arab businessman.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.70)

2009        May 29, Saudi authorities beheaded and crucified a man convicted of brutally slaying an 11-year-old boy and his father.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        May, The Int’l. Banking Corporation (TIBC), a Bahraini bank, defaulted. It was owned by the Ahmad Hamad Algosaibi & Brothers Company of Saudi Arabia. The group later alleged the default was due to fraud orchestrated by Maan Al-Sanea, a Saudi billionaire born in Kuwait. The Gosaibis estimated that Al-Sanea had misappropriated some $9.2 billion.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.61)

2009        Jun 3, Iranian nuclear scientist Shahram Amiri vanished during a pilgrimage to the Saudi kingdom. In October Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said: "We hold Saudi Arabia responsible for Shahram Amiri's situation and consider the US to be involved in his arrest."
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Jun 3, President Barack Obama began his latest bid to open a dialogue with the Muslim world by paying a call on King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. Pres. Obama spoke to King Abdullah about a host of thorny problems, from Arab-Israeli peace efforts to Iran's nuclear program.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia a screening of the Saudi film, "Menahi," brought a taste of the moviegoing experience to Riyadh more than 30 years after the government began shutting down theaters. No women were allowed. Men and children, including girls up to 10, were allowed to attend the show at a government-run cultural center.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 7, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement paving the way for a monetary union and plans for a unified regional currency.
    (SFC, 6/8/09, p.C1)

2009        Jun 12, Guantanamo detainee Ahmed Zuhair and two others were reported to have been sent home to Saudi Arabia, where they would be subject to judicial review before entering a government-run "rehabilitation" program. Zuhair had been held at Guantanamo since June 2002 and had refused to eat since the summer of 2005. He was force-fed a liquid mix to keep him alive.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 14, Yemen accused a Shiite rebel group of kidnapping nine foreigners while on a picnic in northern Saada province. The Interior Ministry official said Hassan Hussein Bin Alwan, a Saudi man suspected of financing Al-Qaida cells in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, has been arrested.
    (AP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 24, The Gosaibi family of Saudi Arabia held a creditor’s meeting in Bahrain. Their representatives revealed that the group owed $9.2 billion to over 120 banks all over the world.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.65)

2009        Jul 15, Mazen Abdul-Jawad (32), a Saudi man, appeared on the Lebanese-based LBC satellite TV station’s "Bold Red Line" program and shocked Saudis by publicly confessing to sexual exploits. More than 200 people soon filed legal complaints against Abdul-Jawad, dubbed a "sex braggart" by the media, and many Saudis said he should be severely punished. On July 31 Abdul-Jawad was detained for questioning. The Jiddah offices of the LBC station were closed soon thereafter.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Jul 8, Saudi officials said a criminal court has convicted and sentenced an al-Qaida militant to death and given more 330 others jail terms, fines and travel bans in the country's first known terrorism trials for suspected members of the terror network. The 330 are believed to be among the 991 suspected militants that Interior Minister Prince Nayef has said had been charged with participating in terrorist attacks over the past five years.
    (AP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 9-2009 Aug 2, Saudi Arabian authorities arrested 44 suspected militants who sought to recruit youths and finance their "deviant activities" through charitable donations.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Jul 22, Amnesty International reported that Saudi Arabia is holding more than 3,000 people in secret detention and has used torture to extract confessions in its anti-terrorism crackdown since the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 23, Arab health ministers decided to ban children, the elderly and those with chronic medical conditions from attending the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia this year in effort to slow the spread of swine flu.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

2009        Aug 9, Italians newspapers reported that burglars earlier in the week had made off with jewels and cash worth 11 million euros (15.6 million dollars) from the hotel room of a Saudi princess in Sardinia, sparking a diplomatic incident. On Sep 15 Sardinia police said most of the jewels had been recovered.
    (AFP, 8/9/09)(AP, 9/15/09)

2009        Aug 19, Saudi authorities said they have arrested 44 suspected militants with al-Qaida links in a yearlong sweep that also uncovered dozens of machine guns and electronic circuits for bombs.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 27, In Saudi Arabia a suicide bomber targeted the assistant interior minister, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, and blew himself up just before going into a gathering of well-wishers for the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in Jiddah. Nayef was slightly wounded.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Sep 14, The Saudi Interior Ministry said on Jan 18, 2010, that an investigation has shown that three Saudi militants were killed in a Sept. 14 blast outside the country  [see Afghanistan and Pakistan Sep 14, 2009].
    (AP, 1/18/10)

2009        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia opened a new multibillion dollar coed university outside the coastal city of Jeddah. The King Abdullah Science and Technology University, or KAUST, boasts state-of-the-art labs, the world's 14th fastest supercomputer and one of the biggest endowments worldwide. 817 students representing 61 different countries were currently enrolled, with 314 beginning classes this month.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

2009        Oct 7, A Saudi court convicted Mazen Abdul-Jawad for publicly talking about sex after he bragged on a TV talk show about his exploits, sentencing him to five years in jail and 1,000 lashes. The program, which aired July 15 on the Lebanese LBC satellite channel, was seen in Saudi Arabia and scandalized conservative viewers where such frank talk is rarely heard in public.
    (AP, 10/7/09)
2009        Oct 7, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah made his first visit to Syria since becoming monarch, the strongest indication yet of thawing relations between the two rival nations following years of tension. The 2-day talks between Abdullah and Assad focused on the need for Arab solidarity in view of the numerous challenges facing the Arab world.
    (AP, 10/7/09)(AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 13, In Saudi Arabia a shootout between Saudi security forces and al-Qaida militants near, two of whom were disguised as women and wearing explosives belts, left two of the militants and a soldier dead near the southern Yemen border. One of the assailants, Abdullah Hassan Tali Assiri, was captured. The two al-Qaida militants killed were planning to carry out a massive attack. 6 Yemeni accomplices. who were coordinating with the two militants, Youssef al-Shihri and Raed al-Harbi, were later arrested.
    (AP, 10/14/09)(AP, 10/18/09)

2009        Oct 24, A Saudi court convicted a female journalist for her involvement in a TV show, in which a Saudi man, Abdul-Jawad, publicly talked about sex, and sentenced her to 60 lashes. Rozanna al-Yami (22) is believed to be the first Saudi woman journalist to be given such a punishment. The same court sentenced Abdul-Jawad earlier this month to five years in jail and 1,000 lashes. 3 other men who appeared on the show, "Bold Red Line," were also convicted of discussing sex publicly and sentenced to two years imprisonment and 300 lashes each. Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah waived the flogging sentence of the female journalist, the second such pardoning of such a high profile case by the monarch in recent years. He ordered al-Yami's case and that of another journalist, a pregnant woman also accused of involvement in the program, be referred to a committee in the ministry.
    (AP, 10/24/09)(AP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct, The Bin Laden family went under the spotlight in "Growing Up Bin Laden," written by Omar bin Laden and his mother, Najwa bin Laden. In Dec, 2009, Omar bin Laden, revealed that many of the children who had been with their father in Afghanistan escaped to Iran following the 2001 US-led invasion, and were still together in a walled compound under Iranian guard.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2009        Nov 1, A Saudi Arabia Interior Ministry spokesman said authorities have discovered large quantities of weapons in the capital Riyadh belonging to al-Qaida terror network. The discovery included 281 assault rifles and 51 ammunition boxes.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 3, Unidentified gunmen infiltrated from Yemen and attacked Saudi security guards patrolling the Mount Dokhan border area. 3 senior security men were killed.
    (AP, 11/5/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.47)

2009        Nov 4, Saudi Arabia launched a large military incursion across the border into northern Yemen, using fighter jets and artillery bombardments to try to end a Shiite rebellion inside its troubled southern neighbor.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia said it carried out airstrikes against "infiltrators" from Yemen that were limited to areas inside Saudi territory, and vowed to press on with the military action until the border with its restive neighbor was secure. In Yemen, however, a military official said Saudi forces continued to shell rebel position in Saada.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia’s assistant defense minister said Saudi forces have taken control of Dokhan mountain straddling the border with Yemen and cleared it of Shiite rebels, in five days of fighting that saw three soldiers killed and 15 wounded.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 9, In Saudi Arabia Ali Sibat (49), a Lebanese psychic who made predictions on a satellite TV channel from his home in Beirut, was sentenced to death for practicing witchcraft. He was arrested by religious police in Medina during a pilgrimage there in May, 2008. In 2010 Saudi authorities said Sibat would not be beheaded. A 3-judge panel said that there was not enough evidence that Sibat's actions harmed others. They ordered the case to be retried in a Medina court and recommended that the sentence be commuted and that Sibat be deported.
    (AP, 11/25/09)(AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 11/13/10)

2009        Nov 10, A Saudi Arabian government adviser says the kingdom has imposed a naval blockade on northern Yemen's Red Sea coast to try to prevent weapons and fighters flowing to Shiite rebels in the area.
    (AP, 11/10/09)

2009        Nov 21, Saudi health officials announced the first deaths from swine flu of this year's annual pilgrimage to Mecca, as four pilgrims succumbed to the disease soon after arriving in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 23, Shiite rebels in northern Yemen accused Saudi forces of launching a major cross-border ground and air attack, a day after an alleged failed incursion.
    (AFP, 11/23/09)

2009        Nov 25, In Saudi Arabia rare, heavy rainstorms soaked pilgrims and flooded the road into Mecca, snarling Islam's annual hajj as some 2.5 million Muslims headed for the holy sites. The downpours add an extra hazard on top of intense concerns about the spread of swine flu. The torrential rains killed at least 106 people. Most of the deaths occurred in Jiddah, where streets were swamped with water, some houses collapsed and mudslides took place, and in areas around the main highway to Mecca.
    (AP, 11/25/09)(AFP, 11/25/09)(AP, 11/26/09)(AP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 27, In Saudi Arabia vast crowds of pilgrims cast stones at walls representing the devil on the third day of the annual hajj as Muslims around the world began celebrating Eid al-Adha, the most important holiday of the Islamic calendar.
    (AP, 11/27/09)
2009        Nov 27, Saudi Arabia said nine of its soldiers fighting Yemeni rebels on the border were missing and Saudi King Abdullah vowed to defend the country.
    (AP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 29, Saudi officials said 5 people died from swine flu during the hajj, a relatively small number considering the event is the largest annual gathering in the world and was seen as an ideal incubator for the virus.
    (AP, 11/29/09)
2009        Nov 29, Somali pirates seized the Greece-flagged Maran Centaurus, a tanker carrying more about $150 million of crude oil from Saudi Arabia to the US, in the waters off East Africa.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 12, Saudi newspapers said Saudi ground forces and Apache attack helicopters had battled Huthi fighters for two days at the Al-Jabri post on the Yemeni border in the southern province of Yemen, and repulsed attempted Huthi incursions. Saudi military denied a claim by Yemen's Huthi rebels that they seized a Saudi border post.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 13, In Yemen air strike killed at least 35 people in the northwest where rebels have been fighting a guerrilla war against Yemeni and Saudi forces. Rebels said 70 civilians were killed as fighter jets struck the town of Razah.
    (SFC, 12/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 15, In Kuwait Gulf Arab nations put into force a monetary pact, moving a step closer toward the elusive goal of a single regional currency and greater integration between the mainly oil-rich states. The announcement was made by Kuwait's finance minister came as leaders from the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council nations were wrapping up a two-day summit in which they launched a regional electricity project. The GCC groups Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia said that 73 Saudis have been killed and 26 gone missing since the kingdom launched an offensive against Yemeni Shiite rebels along the border last month. Rebels, known as Hawthis, have alleged dozens of civilian deaths in Saudi air assaults.
    (SFC, 12/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Dec 28, In Niger unidentified gunmen in the remote western desert shot dead 3 tourists from Saudi Arabia.
    (SFC, 12/29/09, p.A2)

2009        Robert Lacey, British journalist, authored “Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia.”
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.88)

2010        Jan 12, Saudi Arabia said that 82 Saudi soldiers been killed and 21 are missing since November when it joined the fighting in battling rebels along the Yemeni-Saudi border.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 19, A Saudi court sentenced a teenage girl (13) to a 90-lash flogging and two months in prison as punishment for assaulting a teacher. The assault happened after the girl was caught with a camera phone at school.
    (AP, 1/24/10)

2010        Jan 23, Saudi Arabia’s assistant defense minister said Saudi forces have recovered the bodies of 20 soldiers who had been reported missing in fierce battles with Yemeni rebels on the border, raising the Saudi death toll in the conflict to 133.
    (AP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 25, A Saudi foreign ministry spokesman said Saudi Arabia has donated $50 million in relief to Haiti to cope with the devastating earthquake that hit the country nearly two weeks ago, making it the largest donation from the Middle East to date.
    (AP, 1/25/10)
2010        Jan 25, It was reported that Abdel-Malek al-Hawthi, the leader of Yemen's Shiite rebels, has declared the war with Saudi Arabia over and that he will pull his fighters out of Saudi territory. At least 133 Saudis soldiers have died in the months of fierce fighting in the rugged border region.
    (AP, 1/25/10)

2010        Jan 27, A top Saudi defense official said Saudi forces have driven Yemeni rebels out of the border region between the two countries, suggesting that the three month conflict along the mountainous frontier may be winding down.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Feb 2, Saudi Arabia said it will not get involved in peacemaking in Afghanistan unless the Taliban stops providing shelter and severs all ties with Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. Afghan Pres. Karzai was in Saudi Arabia hoping for an active Saudi role to persuade Taliban militants to switch sides.
    (SFC, 2/3/10, p.A4)

2010        Feb 8, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula number two Said al-Shihri called for attacks against US interests "everywhere," in an audio message released on the Internet.
    (AFP, 2/8/10)

2010        Feb 11, The Saudi religious police launched a nationwide crackdown on stores selling items that are red or in any other way allude to the banned celebrations of Valentine's Day.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Yemeni Shiite rebels handed over the first of five Saudi soldiers held captive since their border war.
    (AFP, 2/15/10)
2010        Feb 15, In London, England, a 33-year-old man was arrested after the body of a Saudi man (32) was discovered at the prestigious Landmark Hotel in the Marylebone area. The suspect claimed to be a member of the Saudi royal family. Prince Saud Bin Abdulaziz Bin Nasir Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was soon charged for the killing of Bandar Abdullah Abdulaziz. On Oct 19 the prince was convicted of murder. Photographs of Abdulaziz stored on a mobile phone had shown that there was a "sexual element" to the abuse.
    (AFP, 2/17/10)(AP, 2/19/10)(AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Feb 28, In Saudi Arabia Indian PM Manmohan Singh pitched for investment in his economy and closer petroleum sector cooperation with Saudi Arabia, the second day of a visit to the Middle East oil giant.
    (AFP, 2/28/10)

2010        Mar 1, Somali pirates hijacked a Saudi tanker in the Gulf of Aden. The Al Nisr Al Saudi usually carried fuel oil but was empty when it was taken with 14 crew onboard. NATO said one of its destroyers sank a pirate mothership off the Somali coast. Pirate crew members were transferred to a smaller boat and allowed to return to the mainland.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(SFC, 3/2/10, p.A2)(SFC, 3/4/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 6, The Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association said that Saudi security officers stormed a book stall at the Riyadh Int’l. Book Fair last week and confiscated all work by Abdellah Al-Hamid, a well-known reformer and critic of the royal family.
    (SSFC, 3/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Mar 24, Saudi Arabia said it has foiled several planned attacks on oil installations with the arrests of 113 suspected al-Qaida militants in a months-long sweep.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Apr 20, In Saudi Arabia a police official said that the head of the powerful religious police has fired the chief of the Mecca branch for advocating the mixing of the sexes. Ahmed bin Qassim al-Ghamidi's suggestion in a newspaper interview this week that men and women should be left to mingle freely directly clashed with a central preoccupation of the force.
    (AP, 4/21/10)

2010        May 3, In Saudi Arabia 2 people died in the flooding caused by violent thunderstorms which paralyzed Riyadh this week.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 5, Kuwaiti and Saudi officials said an Iranian espionage group has been dismantled in Kuwait.  The cell was reportedly acting on behalf of Iran's Revolutionary Guard.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 16, Prominent Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi resigned from the helm of Al-Watan daily in a move believed linked to official displeasure with articles critical of the state's harsh Islamic rules.
    (AFP, 5/16/10)

2010        Jun 10, In Saudi Arabia a government-owned daily reported that a Saudi court has convicted a man and sentenced him to four months in prison and 90 lashes for kissing a woman in a mall.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 22, A Saudi court convicted four women and 11 men for mingling at a party and sentenced them to flogging and prison terms.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 29, President Barack Obama and Saudi King Abdullah voiced "strong support" for international efforts to curb Iran's nuclear program, which the West says masks a secret drive to develop the capability for an atomic bomb.
    (Reuters, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 5, The US deported Imam Ahmad Afzali to Saudi Arabia. He had admitted to lying to the FBI during an investigation into a suicide bomb plot against NYC subway stations in 2009.
    (SFC, 7/6/10, p.A4)

2010        Jul 27, Iranian Shiite cleric Yasser Khalili was arrested in Saudi Arabia and put on trial on September 3 charged with "raising a shoe" at Prophet Mohammed's shrine. He was arrested while on pilgrimage by the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice and "jailed for 38 days in handcuffs. A judge ordered him to be whipped 150 times in public in the prophet's shrine. The story was not made public until Jan 8, 2011.
    (AFP, 1/8/11)

2010        Jul 30, The leaders of Syria and Saudi Arabia, once bitter rivals, made an unprecedented show of cooperation, traveling together to Lebanon in hopes of preventing any violence if members of a militant group are indicted in the 2005 assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri. Saudi Arabia, which was close to the slain premier, holds sway with Lebanon's ruling alliance led by his son Saad, while Syria and Iran support a rival camp led by Hezbollah.
    (AP, 7/30/10)

2010        Jul 31, UNESCO added seven cultural sites to its World Heritage List including Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, home to nuclear bomb testing in the 1940s and 1950s. Also added to the list were the Turaif District in Saudi Arabia; Australia's penal colony sites; the Jantar Mantar astronomical observation site in India; a shrine in Ardabil in Iran; the Tabriz historic bazaar complex, also in Iran; and the historic villages of Hahoe and Yangdong in South Korea.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Jul, Saudi Arabia’s population was estimated at 29.2 million.
    (NYT 2011 Almanac, p.673)

2010        Aug 6, Saudi Arabia suspended BlackBerry messaging services, as concerns spread across the Middle East and parts of Asia over security issues with the popular smartphones.
    (AFP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 10, Saudi Arabia's telecommunications regulator said it would allow BlackBerry messaging services to continue in the kingdom, citing "positive developments" with the device's Canadian manufacturer.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 15, In Saudi Arabia Ghazi Algosaibi (70), a consummate statesman and liberal writer, died after a long illness. Algosaibi was close to the kingdom's ruling family. But his writings, critical of Arab governments, were banned in the kingdom. Only last month, Saudi Culture Ministry lifted the ban on his writings citing his contributions to the nation.
    (AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 23, Saudi low-cost private airline Sama, launched in 2007 to serve Gulf and other Arab states, said it is to suspend services from Aug 24 due to financial problems.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 26, A Sri Lankan housemaid, L. T. Ariyawathi (49), was admitted to a hospital and planned to undergo surgery to remove 24 nails embedded in her body. Ariyawathi said her employer in Saudi Arabia had inflicted the injuries on her as a punishment. The woman traveled to Saudi Arabia in March and returned home last week, complaining of abuse by her employer.
    (AFP, 8/26/10)

2010        Sep 20, Saudi Arabia’s Shura Council voted 62 to 56 against a memorandum of understanding on bilateral consultations with Denmark after several members expressed unhappiness over the publication of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed in a Danish newspaper.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 26, The Saudi Gazette quoted Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz as saying: "Saudi Arabia is tackling terrorism with all its might and authorities have so far been successful in foiling 230 of 240 terrorist attempts." The number covers the period from 2003 to the present.
    (AFP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 15, The Saudi government said Jaber Jabran al-Faifi, a former Guantanamo detainee, has turned himself in to Saudi authorities. He had rejoined Al-Qaeda in Yemen after graduating from Saudi Arabia's rehabilitation program.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 20, British Justice David Bean sentenced Prince Saud Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud  to a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 20 years for the brutal assault at the Landmark Hotel in London on Feb 15.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, In its biggest arms deal ever, the United States announced it will sell up to 60 billion dollars worth of warplanes, helicopters and other weapons to Saudi Arabia, partly to help it counter Iran.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, Afghanistan's new peace council said it would be willing to make concessions to bring insurgents to the negotiating table, and called for Saudi Arabia's help in mediating peace talks.
    (Reuters, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 29, Authorities on 3 continents thwarted attacks when they seized explosives on cargo planes in the United Arab Emirates and England. The plot sent tremors throughout the US, where after a frenzied day searching planes and parcel trucks for other explosives, officials temporarily banned all new cargo from Yemen. The next day police in Dubai said that the bomb discovered there contained the powerful explosive PETN and bore the hallmarks of al-Qaida. One of the two powerful bombs mailed from Yemen to Chicago-area synagogues traveled on two passenger planes within the Middle East. A tip of the plot came from Jabir al-Fayfi, a Saudi who was held for years at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay. On Nov 5 al Qaeda's Yemen-based wing claimed responsibility for the explosive parcels.
    (AP, 10/30/10)(AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/2/10)(Reuters, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 13, Sudanese Pres. al-Bashir left Khartoum for the annual hajj in Mecca, despite an outstanding arrest warrant issued for al-Bashir by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        Nov 14, An estimated 2.5-3 million Muslims began the annual hajj pilgrimage. The total number of tourists to Mecca and Medina, home to the prophet Muhammad, is expected to rise from about 12 million to almost 17 million by 2025. The Saudi Arabia government's commission for tourism and antiquities said revenue from tourism this year would reach $17.6 billion and double by 2015.
    (http://tinyurl.com/25zum7p)(AFP, 11/14/10)

2010        Nov 15, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims performing the annual hajj pilgrimage began making their way up the rocky desert Mount Arafat, chanting that they have come to answer God's call.
    (AP, 11/15/10)

2010        Nov 16, In Saudi Arabia pilgrims performing the annual hajj cast pebbles at three stone walls representing Satan in a symbolic rejection of temptation, as Muslims around the world celebrated Islam's biggest holiday, the festival of sacrifice.
    (AP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 17, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah stepped down as head of the country's National Guard and transferred the influential position to his son, in an apparent sign that the elderly monarch is beginning to lessen some of his duties.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 18, In Saudi Arabia rain soaked crowds of Muslim pilgrims and lightning flashed as they performed some of the final rituals of the annual hajj, stoning symbols of the devil and circling the Kaaba, Islam's holiest site.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 19, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono said that an inquiry will be launched into a female migrant's suspicious death in Saudi Arabia. Kikim Komalasari, who had worked in Abha city in Saudi Arabia since June 2009, had died from abuse. She was from Cianjur in West Java province.
    (AFP, 11/19/10)

2010        Nov 20, In Saudi Arabia a young woman in her twenties defying a driving ban in the capital died along with three female friends when her car overturned.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Nov 22, Saudi King Abdullah (86) departed for New York for medical treatment and temporarily handed control of the world's top oil producer and key American ally to Crown Prince Sultan, his half brother and heir to the throne.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 23, Saudi media said a Saudi woman (53), accused of torturing her Indonesian maid, has been sent to jail while the maid, Sumiati Binti Salan Mustapa (23), receives extensive hospital treatment for burns and broken bones.
    (AFP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 26, Saudi Interior Ministry spokesman Mansour al-Turki said authorities have arrested nearly 150 al-Qaida suspects over the past eight months, foiling planned attacks on Saudi government officials, civilians and media personalities.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 28, More than 250,000 classified US State Department documents were released by online whistleblower WikiLeaks. Among the leaked memos was information that Iranian Red Crescent ambulances were used to smuggle weapons to Lebanon's militant Hezbollah group during its 2006 war with Israel. Memos said the "IRC shipments of medical supplies served also to facilitate weapons shipments." Documents also detailed concerns by US officials in Baghdad about Iran’s influence on Iraq. Memos also said King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia had repeatedly urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear program to stop Tehran from developing a nuclear weapon. One cable revealed that the US kept nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.35)

2010        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia's Rani Investment Group said it would break ground on a 100-million-dollar (75-million-euro) resort on a Mozambique island next year, aiming to cash in on foreign tourists.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia the Omma Conference magazine said in a statement posted on its website that police arrested its editor Mohammed Al-Abdul Karim at his home and took him to Hayer prison outside the capital Riyadh. In an article last week, Al-Abdul Karim predicted that Abdullah's death might cause the oil-rich kingdom to fall apart.
    (AP, 12/7/10)
2010        Dec 7, Leaders of six US-allied Gulf Arab nations, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), said they were monitoring with "utmost concern" developments in Iran's disputed nuclear program and issued a thinly veiled warning to their Persian neighbor not to meddle in their internal affairs. The 2-day gathering of leaders from the Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman followed the publication of leaked US diplomatic memos that revealed deeper concern among Gulf Arab leaders over Tehran's nuclear program than had previously been known.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 16, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of Sunni hard-liners in Medina attacked those participating in the commemorations, known as Ashura. The day of mourning marks the killing of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson Hussein in the year 680 in present day Iraq. Shiites represented 10% of predominantly Sunni Saudi Arabia's 22.6 million people.
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 22, The Saudi Civil and Political Rights Association said in a statement that the Interior Ministry summoned the coordinators of the protest to notify them that their request has been rejected, without giving any reasons. The group's 20 demands included curtailing privileges of members of the Saudi royal family, fighting corruption and nepotism, and creating an independent judiciary.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 24, In Saudi Arabia police shot dead a man, disguised as a woman, at a checkpoint south of Riyadh after he opened fire on them. Police later identified the man as Mohammed Issam Tahir al-Baghdadi, an al-Qaida operative wanted for terrorist activities.
    (AP, 12/27/10)

2010        Thomas Hegghammer authored “Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism singe 1979.”
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.91)
2010        In Saudi Arabia an estimated 4 million women over the age of 20 were unmarried in the country of 24.6 million. Many male guardians forcibly kept women single, a practice known as "adhl." Saudi feminist Wajeha al-Hawaidar described male guardianship as "a form of slavery."
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2011        Jan 10, Interpol said it had placed 47 Saudis on its most wanted list after Saudi Arabia accused them of involvement in the Al-Qaida terror network.
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 16, A group of Saudi activists launched a campaign, named My Country, to push the kingdom to allow women to run in upcoming municipal election, scheduled this spring.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 21, A Saudi man died after setting himself on fire in the southwestern town of Samta, in what could be the latest example of a rash of self-immolations sweeping the region following events in Tunisia.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 24, The New York-based Human Rights Watch said in its World Report 2011 that Saudi Arabia's government is harassing and jailing activists, often without trial, for speaking out in favor of expanding religious tolerance and that new restrictions on electronic communication in the kingdom were severe.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 29, Saudi Arabia's stock exchange tumbled by over 6 percent, setting the stage for other regional markets to drop as concerns mounted about the violent protests in Egypt.
    (AP, 1/29/11)

2011        Jan, In Saudi Arabia flooding struck Jeddah and 10 people were killed.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.53)

2011        Feb 9, Ten moderate Saudi scholars asked the king for recognition of their Umma Islamic Party, the kingdom's first political party.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 15, A Saudi official at the Education Ministry said the kingdom plans to remove books from school libraries that are deemed to encourage terrorism or defame religion.
    (AP, 2/15/11)
2011        Feb 15, The London-based Gulf Dialogue Forum said intense contacts are under way among Saudi activists and scholars to form a political party in the oil-rich absolute monarchy. The online forum said the National Saudi Party advocates establishing a civil democratic government because of the recent turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 23, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah (86) announced an unprecedented economic aid package, including interest-free home loans totaling some $37 billion.
    (Reuters, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Saudi Arabia influential intellectuals said in a statement that Arab rulers should derive a lesson from the uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and listen to the voice of disenchanted young people.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 27, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah ordered that government sector workers employed under temporary contracts be given permanent contracts in another to pre-empt growing calls for reform.
    (AP, 2/27/11)

2011        Mar 4, In Saudi Arabia about 100 members of the Shiite minority staged a protest in an eastern region of the kingdom.
    (AP, 3/5/11)

2011        Mar 5, Saudi Arabia’s Interior Ministry said demonstrations won't be tolerated and its security forces will act against anyone taking part in them.
    (AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 10, Saudi police in the city of Qatif reportedly shot and wounded 3 Shiite protesters, while trying to disperse a protest calling for the release of prisoners.
    (AFP, 3/10/11)(SFC, 3/11/11, p.A4)

2011        Mar 11, In Saudi Arabia hundreds of police deployed in the capital and prevented protests calling for democratic reforms inspired by the wave of unrest sweeping the Arab world.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 13, More than 200 Saudis were allowed to protest outside the Interior Ministry to demand the release of detainees in the largest demonstration in the capital since the regional outbreak of pro-democracy unrest.
    (AP, 3/13/11)
2011        Mar 13, In Bahrain riot police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at anti-government demonstrators blocking the highway into the capital's financial district and surrounded the protesters' main camp in the capital. More than 200 people were injured there in clashes between riot police and demonstrators.
    (AP, 3/13/11)(AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 14, The 4th $50 thousand International Prize for Arabic Fiction was split between Mohammed Achaari of Morocco, author of “The Arch and the Butterfly,” and Raja Alem of Saudi Arabia, author of “The Dove’s Necklace.” Alem was the first women winner.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.95)
2011        Mar 14, In Bahrain a parliament bloc appealed for the king to impose martial law. Some 1,000 Saudi troops entered Bahrain as part of the Gulf countries' joint Peninsula Shield Force.
    (AP, 3/14/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.56)

2011        Mar 18, Saudi Arabia's king promised a multibillion dollar package of reforms, raises, cash, loans and apartments in what appeared to be the Arab world's most expensive attempt to appease residents inspired by the unrest that has swept two leaders from power.
    (AP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 20, In Saudi Arabia dozens of Saudi men and women, outnumbered by anti-riot police, protested outside Riyadh's Interior Ministry, demanding the release of thousands of detainees held without trial for years.
    (AP, 3/20/11)

2011        Mar 25, A Saudi news agency says several hundred Shiite Muslims have held protests in eastern Saudi Arabia to demand the release of detainees and show support for fellow Shiites protesting against the Sunni monarchy in nearby Bahrain.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        May 10, The Gulf Co-operation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE) said it welcomed Jordan’s request to join the 6-member group. Jordan had first applied for membership in the mid-1980s. The GCC said it would encourage Morocco to also join.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.54)(http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=13586238)

2011        May 11, Saudi Arabia said three al-Qaida members have returned from abroad and turned themselves in. Officials said four other al-Qaida operatives surrendered to Saudi security after their leader, Osama bin Laden, was killed in a US raid May 2 in Pakistan.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 16, In Pakistan a Saudi diplomat was killed in a hail of bullets on his way to the country's consulate in Karachi, the second attack on Saudi interests in Pakistan's biggest city in less than a week.
    (AFP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 22, Saudi authorities re-arrested activist Manal al-Sherif, who defied a ban on female drivers. She was detained for several hours a day earlier by the country's religious police and released after she signed a pledge agreeing not to drive. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that bans women, both Saudi and foreign, from driving.
    (AP, 5/23/11)

2011        May 23, A Saudi pilot died when his US-made F-15 fighter jet crashed in eastern Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia beheaded Ruyati binti Satubi (54), an Indonesian grandmother, for killing an allegedly abusive Saudi employer. In response Indonesia later enacted a moratorium on labor exports to Saudi Arabia effective August 1.
    (SFC, 8/10/11, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/3wvhbpm)

2011        Jun 28, Saudi police detained one woman while driving in Jiddah on the Red Sea coast. Four other women accused of driving were later detained in the city.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 2, Der Spiegel reported that Germany has agreed to sell 200 Leopard tanks to Saudi Arabia.

2011        Jul 13, The Saudi-funded Asharq Alawsat daily reported that Saudi authorities have dismantled an Al-Qaeda-linked group of 16 people plotting to overthrow the regime. The group, which called itself the "project of the generation," also engaged in collecting funds under the guise of charitable activities, which were in fact destined for "suspicious foreign parties."
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 15, Saudi authorities beheaded a man convicted of attacking a woman and snapping nude photos of her in order to blackmail her for sex.
    (AP, 7/16/11)

2011        Jul 18, Spain’s Transport Minister Jose Blanco confirmed that a Spanish consortium has won a contract worth 7.0 billion euros ($10 billion) to build a high-speed rail network linking Medina, Jeddah and the Muslim pilgrimage site of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 25, Saudi authorities blocked the website of Amnesty International inside the kingdom following criticism of a controversial new anti-terrorism draft law.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 30, Three Saudis were beheaded in the western city of Taef after being convicted of killing fellow citizens in two separate incidents.
    (AFP, 7/30/11)

2011        Aug 3, Saudi Arabia said Abdel-Salam Rashed al-Farraj, an al-Qaida member on the kingdom's most-wanted list, has turned himself in after calling his family from abroad.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 6, In Saudi Arabia security forces shot dead a gunman as he opened fire on the Jeddah palace of Interior Minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz. Another man was arrested during the attack in which two men opened fire after midnight on the Qasr Shateh residence of Prince Nayef.
    (AFP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah demanded a stop to Syria’s “killing machine.”
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.43)

2011        Sep 16, In Yemen thousands of protesters took to the streets demanding the resignation of Pres. Saleh, a day after the US State Department said it hoped a power transfer deal could be signed within a week. Officials in Saudi Arabia and Yemen said that President Ali Abdullah Saleh will not return to Sanaa and will, instead, remain in Riyadh.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 18, In Saudi Arabia 10 more men at a special summary court were accused of plotting to carry out attacks against US forces in Qatar and Kuwait.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, p.A4)

2011        Sep 19, In Saudi Arabia Abdul Hamid al-Fakki, a Sudanese man, was executed for the crime of sorcery.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.73)

2011        Sep 25, Saudi King Abdullah announced that the nation's women will gain the right to vote and run as candidates in local elections to be held in 2015 in a major advancement for the rights of women in the deeply conservative Muslim kingdom.
    (AP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 27, In Saudi Arabia Shaima Jastaina was sentenced to be lashed 10 times with a whip for defying the kingdom’s prohibition on driving. King Abdullah quickly overturned the court ruling.
    (SFC, 9/28/11, p.A2)(SFC, 9/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 29, Saudi Arabian men cast ballots in local council elections, the second-ever nationwide vote in the oil-rich kingdom. Women don't have the right to vote this time around, but will be able to do so in 2015. The councils are one of the few elected bodies in the country but have no real power, mandated to offer advice to provincial authorities.
    (AP, 9/29/11)
2011        Sep 29, Manssor Arbabsiar (56), a US citizen who holds an Iranian passport, was arrested when he arrived at New York's Kennedy International Airport. Mexico worked closely with US authorities to help foil an alleged $1.5 million plot to kill the Saudi Arabian ambassador to Washington. On Oct 11 Arbabsiar was charged in US District Court in New York with conspiring to kill the Saudi diplomat, Adel Al-Jubeir (49).
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 13, In Austria a Saudi-backed interfaith center, the "King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Center for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue," was inaugurated in Vienna, igniting debate over the subject of religious tolerance.
    (AP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 22, Saudi Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz (b.~1928), heir to the Saudi throne, died in the United States. He had been receiving treatment for colon cancer since 2009. The most likely candidate to replace Sultan as King Abdullah's successor is Prince Nayef (78), the powerful interior minister in charge of internal security forces.
    (AFP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 27, Saudi Arabia's powerful interior minister, Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (78), was named the new heir to the throne in a royal decree read out on state television.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 29, Saudi Prince Khaled bin Talal, brother of billionaire Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, told the kingdom's al-Daleel TV station by telephone that he was raising a previous offer made by Sheik Awadh al-Qarani, a prominent Saudi cleric who promised $100,000 for capturing an Israeli soldier.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 3, Saudi authorities said nearly 2.5 million Muslims have gathered in Mecca ahead of the annual 5-day hajj pilgrimage, which begins Nov 5.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 5, In Saudi Arabia millions of Muslims began their annual hajj pilgrimage by climbing a rocky desert hill outside Mecca. The ascent of Arafat is the first event associated with the five-day hajj.
    (AP, 11/5/11)

2011        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia millions of Muslims stoned pillars representing the devil in a symbolic rejection of temptation on the second day of their annual hajj pilgrimage, a day that also marks the start of the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Adha. More than 2.9 million Muslims were performing the hajj this year.
    (AP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 15, Saudi Arabia said it has signed an agreement with South Korea on developing nuclear power generation to help meet the kingdom's rising demand.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 23, Yemen’s Pres. Saleh signed a US-backed power-transfer deal, brokered by neighboring countries in the Saudi capital of Riyadh. It officially transfers power to his vice president, Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. The deal also called for early presidential elections within 90 days.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 24, Saudi Arabia's Interior Ministry said minority Shiite Muslims have staged protests in the eastern city of Qatif, and four were shot dead. Shiites make up 10 percent of the kingdom's 23 million citizens and complain of discrimination.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amnesty International published a new report accusing Saudi Arabia of conducting a campaign of repression against protesters and reformists since the Arab Spring erupted.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia sentenced an Australian man to 500 lashes and a year in jail after being found guilty of blasphemy. Reports said Mansor Almaribe (45) was detained in Medina on November 14 while making the hajj pilgrimage and accused of insulting companions of the prophet Mohammed. The father-of-five from Shepparton in Victoria state, who could not afford a lawyer, suffers from diabetes and heart disease.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 10, Saudi Arabia’s Okaz newspaper reported that a man convicted of raping his daughter has been sentenced to receive 2,080 lashes over the course of a 13-year prison term. A court in Mecca found the man guilty of raping his teenage daughter for seven years while under the influence of drugs.
    (AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 12, Saudi authorities executed a woman convicted of practicing magic and sorcery. The woman was arrested in April, 2009, and later convicted in a Saudi court. Religious police, who arrested the woman, said she had tricked people into thinking she could treat illnesses, charging them $800 per session.
    (AP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 15, In Saudi Arabia 35 Ethiopian Christians, 29 of them women, were arrested  after police raided a private prayer gathering. They later faced deportation for "illicit mingling."
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2011        Dec 19, Saudi billionaire Prince Walid bin Talal and his Kingdom Holding Company announced a combined investment of $300 million in the social networking site Twitter.
    (AFP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 29, The Obama administration announced an arms deal with Saudi Arabia valued at nearly $30 billion. It included 84 F-15 fighter jets.
    (SFC, 12/30/11, p.A5)
2011        Dec 29, Industry sources said Saudi Arabia's state oil company Aramco was seeking to buy fuel in order to donate about 500,000 tons of products to Yemen in January.
    (Reuters, 12/31/11)

2011        In Saudi Arabia at least 76 death row inmates were executed this year, according to an AFP count. Amnesty International believed that at least 79 executions during this period. In 2010, 27 people were executed, according to the UN, citing a report by Human Rights Watch.
    (AFP, 1/5/12)

2012        Jan 2, Saudi Arabia said it will begin enforcing a law that allows only females to work in women's lingerie and apparel stores, effective December 5. The 2006 law banning men from working in female apparel and cosmetic stores has never been put into effect.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 3, Israeli credit card companies said hackers claiming to be Saudis disclosed credit card information of thousands of Israelis on the Internet.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 6, An alleged Saudi hacker (19), oxOmar, posted thousands of Israeli credit card numbers and other personal data online, his second politically motivated attack this week.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 12, Saudi security forces clashed with Shiite protesters in the kingdom's oil-rich east killing one person and wounding 3. The clashes came after demonstrations were held in four Qatif region villages to call for the "release of political detainees, reform and an end to sectarian discrimination. Most of Saudi Arabia's estimated two million Shiites live in the Eastern Province.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 13, British PM David Cameron held talks with Saudi King Abdullah in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 14, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao held talks with Saudi officials in Riyadh on the first stop of a Gulf tour, as tensions over Iran's nuclear program sparked fears of major oil supply disruptions.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)
2012        Jan 14, A French Mirage and a Saudi F-15 collided in the kingdom's northern region of Tabuk without causing casualties.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 16, A hacker network that claims to be based in Saudi Arabia paralyzed the websites of Israel's stock exchange and national airline. El Al Israel Airlines took down its website after hacker OxOmar, who has been linked to the Saudi group, warned that both sites would be targeted by allied pro-Palestinian hackers.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 24, Saudi police detained nine men accused of instigating riots earlier this month in the eastern city of Qatif.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 30, A Riyadh-based Afghan diplomat said Afghan officials and representatives of the Taliban insurgents are to hold peace talks in Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 7, South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak arrived in Riyadh at the start of a two-day visit to the OPEC kingpin which comes as Seoul seeks to diversify its oil sources. Lee Myung-Bak held talks with Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi and the head of Saudi state oil giant Aramco, Khalid al-Faleh. Saudi Arabia pledged to ensure a stable supply of oil to South Korea.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)(AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, In Saudi Arabia Munir al-Medani (21) was killed and three wounded when security forces exchanged gunfire with "masked men" in the Qatif district of the kingdom's oil-rich Eastern Province. Activists and witnesses said that security forces opened fire when a Shiite procession marking the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed, a celebration forbidden in ultra-conservative Sunni Muslim Saudi Arabia, turned into a demonstration for reform and the release of Shiite detainees.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)(AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Saudi Arabia Zuhair al-Said (21) was killed as security forces dispersed a protest against the death of another Shiite demonstrator the previous day.
    (AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, Malaysia deported Hamza Kashgari, a young Saudi journalist wanted in his home country over a Twitter post about the Prophet Mohammed, defying pleas from human rights group who said he faced execution. His tweet: "I have loved things about you and I have hated things about you and there is a lot I don't understand about you. "I will not pray for you."
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 19, A Saudi court acquitted rights activist Said bin Zeghair, who spent five years in detention accused of supporting al-Qaida's ideology. The court cited lack of evidence. Bin Zeghair was first detained in 1995 but was freed after nine years without being charged or tried. Later he was sentenced to five years in prison but was pardoned when King Abdullah ascended to the throne in 2005. He was detained again in 2007.
    (AP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 29, Saudi Arabia said that it would honor a pledge of $3.75 billion in aid to Egypt, after complaints by the Egyptian premier that donor countries were failing to respect their commitments.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb, In Saudi Arabia a royal order stipulated that women who drive should not be prosecuted by the courts.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.60)

2012        Mar 6, In Bangladesh Saudi diplomat Khalaf bin Mohammed Salem al-Ali was shot and killed on a residential street in Dhaka. Authorities said the gunman and a motive were unknown.
    (AP, 3/6/12)
2012        Mar 6, Swedish Radio reported that Sweden has in secret been helping Saudi Arabia plan the construction of an arms factory to produce anti-tank missiles. Construction on "Project Simoom" has yet to begin.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 14, Saudi Arabia said it has closed its embassy in Damascus and pulled out its diplomats and staff as Syrian President Bashar Assad steps up attacks against the opposition.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 22, Saudi Arabia media reports said single men in Riyadh will be able to visit shopping malls during peak hours after Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz  eased restrictions aimed at stopping harassment of women.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 26, Saudi King Abdullah ordered the donation of petroleum products to neighboring Yemen that should cover the impoverished country's needs for two months.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 28, In Yemen's Saudi Arabia's deputy consul, Abdullah al-Khalidi (al-Khaldi), was seized by unknown gunmen outside his home in southern port city of Aden.  Al-Qaida's Yemen branch claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)(AP, 5/26/12)

2012        Mar 26, A Spanish court dropped a rape probe against a Saudi prince who is one of the world's richest people, saying his accuser's allegations are inconsistent and do not stand up. The ruling cleared Prince Alwaleed bin Talal (57) and was released today by a court in Palma in Spain's Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. The drugging and sexual assault of a young Spanish model was alleged to have occurred aboard a yacht moored at the island of Ibiza in the wee hours of Aug 12, 2008.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Apr 1, Syria blasted an international conference on the country's spreading crisis before it even started in Istanbul, calling it part of an international conspiracy to kill Syrians and weaken the country. Monitors said at least 16 people were killed, including eight soldiers who died during ambushes and gun battles in the east, northwest and near Damascus. Participants at the 60-nation “Friends of the Syrian People” meeting said Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries are creating a multimillion-dollar fund to pay members of the rebel Free Syrian Army and soldiers who defect from the regime and join opposition ranks.
    (AP, 4/1/12)(AFP, 4/1/12)(SSFC, 4/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 4, A Saudi official reiterated a position he announced late last year, confirming that Saudi Arabia will be fielding only male athletes in London. Prince Nawaf bin Faisal said, however, that Saudi women taking part on their own are free to do so and the kingdom's Olympic authority would "only help in ensuring that their participation does not violate the Islamic sharia law."
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 4, Saudi Arabia beheaded a man found guilty of shooting dead a fellow Saudi. His execution in Riyadh brought the total number of beheadings so far this year to 17.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)
2012        Apr 4, Iraq's fugitive Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi, accused of running a death squad, left the Gulf state of Qatar for Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 10, In Saudi Arabia a Specialized Criminal Court in Riyadh found al-Bajady guilty of several offenses, including participating in the establishment of a human rights organization and harming the image of Saudi Arabia in media articles. He was reportedly tried in secret sentenced to four years in prison.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 17, A prominent Egyptian human rights lawyer, Ahmed el-Gezawi, was arrested upon his arrival in the Saudi port of Jiddah. He was on his way to perform a minor pilgrimage. El-Gezawi had earlier filed a lawsuit in Egypt against King Abdullah over the alleged arbitrary detention of hundreds of Egyptians living in the kingdom. A rights group said he has criticized the monarch in television interviews.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 18, Iran welcomed Saudi Arabia suspending death sentences against several of its nationals convicted for drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 24, Hundreds of Egyptians noisily protested outside the Saudi Embassy to demand the release of an Egyptian human rights lawyer detained on April 17 in Saudi Arabia for allegedly insulting the kingdom's monarch.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2012        Apr 26, Pakistani authorities deported Osama bin Laden's three widows and his children to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/27/12)(SFC, 4/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 28, Saudi Arabia's official news agency said the kingdom has closed its embassy and consulates in Egypt and recalled its ambassador following protests over a detained Egyptian human rights lawyer Ahmed el-Gezawi.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        May 14, Liberal civil society groups in Gulf states called on Saudi and Bahraini leaders to postpone plans to announce a union between them, saying such a step must be preceded by a referendum.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 18, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has banned all government and private agencies from using the Gregorian calendar in official dealings. The use the English language to answer calls or communicate, mainly in companies and hotels, has also been banned in an effort to preserve the Arabic language.
    (SSFC, 5/20/12, p.A4)
2012        May 18, In Iran thousands of people demonstrated in Tehran to protest a proposed union of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 23, Saudi Arabia’s SPA state news said Saudi Arabia has signed a $3-billion deal with Britain to buy Hawk trainer jets for the Gulf kingdom's air force. The majority of the Hawks will be made at BAE's plants in Samlesbury and Warton in Lancashire, northwest England.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)(Reuters, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, Saudi Arabia said it will give its impoverished neighbor Yemen aid worth $3.25 billion and urging other nations to take similar steps.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, In Saudi Arabia a Saudi woman defied orders by the notorious religious police to leave a mall because she is wearing nail polish and recorded the interaction on her camera. Her video went viral, attracting more than a million hits in just five days.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        Jun 16, Saudi Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz (79), a half brother of King Abdullah, died, leaving the oil powerhouse with no apparent successor to the throne.
    (AFP, 6/16/12)

2012        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia’s Defense Minister Prince Salman bin Abdul-Aziz (76), a half brother to the king, was named the country’s new crown prince.
    (SFC, 6/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 26, Saudi authorities beheaded four of its citizens for murder and a Syrian national for drug smuggling.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Saudi Arabia
End of file.

[Sharia is satanic imperialism! is indispensabile destroy Saudi Arabia!] NEWS: This is the gate of Bab Al-Salam north of Aleppo, Bab al Hawa and announce the beginning of an Islamic state, while above Their Heads, waving a flag of Al Qaeda. (idiots, you have Transformed into a hero Assad! He wanted to leave peacefully, and in fact: it has amended the Constitution) [that is a revolution in Syria artificial! why the rebels conquered the border crossings, because in their dispearazione seek other additional troops to Saudi Arabia!] [U. S. and NATO: Allies of Al Qaeda: the servants of imperialism while Saudi Assad fights alone: for the hope of Israel]

[Sharia is satanic imperialism! is indispensabile destroy Saudi Arabia!] [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic of seigniorage banking system] [CIA Protects Satanism:? no! she is the institutional Satanism!] [Shock at the French Radio (RMC), a Syrian Tells the Truth About Syria] During the famous morning broadcast led by Jean Jacques Bourdin (Bourdin & co.) Syrian said: "Syria is held hostage by gangs of criminals who terrorize the population. "[loop. en] Security sources in Jordan have instead announced that they had arrested 13 Islamic militants who wanted to enter Syria Salafists to join a jihadist group to fight against the regime.

CREATE FALSE IDENTITY? this: IS A MORTAL SIN AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST! But, I do not have a problem with this reality of fiction: why, my goal is educational!
love me? is destabilizing (in mode positive)! because my ideals are too metaphysical: 1, high, 2 universal, 3, noble, 4. trascendenti!

MarlAMArleen SAID: really true words found for: german girls :-). You made ​​my day;-) Bye. - Answer - I do not have a problem in the relationship with the people: for I am very personable. WHY I AM A MAN, that is dedicated to God, while women are instinctively courses: to a possessive love? no! it is because I am too busy: from my mission: that God has given me a task too important to be done on earth, which, I maintain a certain distance from all (and this also because: in my attitudes unconscious, because, I love you too all women)! Then, when the women (young and very beautiful): they wanted me sexually? I did not go with them, of course, but then they are aging rapidly, because of my refusal. here's why: I understood to be dangerous for women, I avoid it: if I can, to get too intimate with them: However, I do not disappoint anyone's love, because I'm not afraid to love

[google you can delete all your porn] MarlaMarleen has published a comment 7 hours ago: said :.@ UniusRei3: Pornography is one of the worst assaults on human society and Should Be Interpreted restrictively. Apart from That destroyed the pornography, 'which sets as a visual disease in the brain, every spiritual relationship It's a subtle attack of all spiritual things and thoughts and not sexual. Sexuality works in combination with feeling, touching and communication. Pornography is a pure visual experience. Pornography confused for moral instincts. Pornography destroys the human would A country can not by Itself That It allows Argue That human rights must be-observed. One Should Therefore ban pornography from the public life.

[google you can delete all your porn] MarlaMarleen has published a comment 7 hours ago: said :.@ UniusRei3: I do not like pornography, Because it's a damn daemon That may negatively impact the individual's life, like nicotine, drugs and other things. The release Multiplied the problems and this is not in the sense of human society. Sexuality is something That can be quite banal Also very nice but just as everything in life. Pornography is a Satanic distraction Therefore Certainly That Was Especially pushed up by Hollywood, and will. Pornography is not to be confused with sexuality. Otherwise I get bad notices again :-)



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  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    4 minuti fa
    [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic banking system of seigniorage] "07/22/2012 VATICAN. Devil always trying to wreck God's peace. Benedict XVI talks about the Meaning of the Good Shepherd theme During the Angelus. He Expresses Solidarity with the victims in Aurora and Zanzibar. The London Olympics are "an occasion to Promote brotherhood and peace." Castel Gandolfo (AsiaNews) - "The devil is always trying to wreck God's work, sowing divisions in the human heart, Between body and soul, man and God, in interpersonal , social and international relations, even Between man and creation. The devil sows war; God Creates peace, "Benedict XVI said in today's Angelus. The papal Teachings Were inspired by today's Gospel, 'which riguarda the story of how Jesus Expelled the "seven demons" from Mary of Magdala.
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    5 minuti fa
    [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic banking system of seigniorage] Speaking to some 3.000 people in the courtyard of the apostolic palace in Castel Gandolfo, the pope, after the Marian prayer, Expressed his best wishes to the upcoming London Olympics as well as His closeness to the families of the victims of the Tragedies in Aurora, United States, and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Before the Angelus, Benedict XVI Noted That "The Word of God this Sunday Reminds us of a Fundamental and always fascinating Biblical theme. It Reminds us That God is the Shepherd of Humanity. This Means That life God wants for us, he wants to lead us to good pasture, where we can feed and rest. He does not want us to get lost and die, he wants us to reach the goal of our journey, 'which is the fullness of life.
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    5 minuti fa
    [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic banking system of seigniorage] This is what every father and every mother wants for Their children: goodness, happiness and fulfillment. "The episode of Mary of Magdala, the pope said, That shows the" deep healing "God performs through Jesus' lies in the true and full peace, the fruit of Reconciliation of oneself with oneself and in all other relations: with God, others and the world." This is the opposite of what evil tries to do. To Achieve this radical act of Reconciliation, Jesus, the Good Shepherd, Became the lamb, "the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world" (Jn, 1:29). Only this way, Could he fulfil the wonderful promise of the Psalm: "Indeed, goodness and mercy will Pursue me all the days of my life;
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    5 minuti fa
    [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic banking system of seigniorage] I will dwell in the house of the LORD for endless days, '(Psalms, 22:6). These words make the heart pulse Because They express our Deepest Desire. They say why we where made: life, eternal life. "" May the Olympic Games Also be an occasion to Promote brotherhood and peace, "Benedict XVI said." The Olympics are the greatest sporting events in the world, with athletes from many nations Participating, as Such and carry a strong symbolic value. For this, the Catholic Church looks upon Them particolare with warmth and attention. "" We pray That with the will of God the Games in London will be a true experience of Brotherhood Between the peoples of the world. "May They" bear fruit , Promoting Peace and Reconciliation throughout the world. "
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    5 minuti fa
    CIA Protects Satanism:? no! she is the institutional Satanism!] The mother said: "They got the right person" (this: it is pure irony: it is typical of Satanists: (isolated to the adept) do clamorous Demonstrations: and not leave traces: or profiles: in social networks.) AURORA, DENVER - He twenty-four years James Holmes, the killer of Denver, guilty of HAVING killed twelve people and injured another 58. Holmes does not have public profiles and reconstructions, in social life Rather mysterious. Having Decided, for a mask and a jacket, that: Those of recall "Bane": "the bad": it might not be not a coincidence (in the logic of Satanism). civil society? is not equipped to control Against Satanism! (I have closed the server and I have prevented the publication of this article at: 20.00)
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    6 minuti fa
    [Against Sharia salafis of Satanism and IMF: massonic banking system of seigniorage] Speaking again in English, Benedict XVI said he "was deeply shocked by the senseless violence Which Took Place in Aurora, Denver, and saddened by the loss of life in the recent ferry disaster near Zanzibar. I share the distress of the families and friends of the victims and the injured, Especially the Children, assuring all of you of my closeness in prayer. " Masons traitors of shit! accomplices of religious maniacs of the IMF Talmud: and: Sharia law: for to Enslave: the Entire Human Race: under the worship of Baal, the god owl at Bohemian Grove! Masons traitors of shit! accomplices of religious maniacs of the IMF: the Talmud-Sharia to enslave the entire human race: the worship of Baal, the god owl at Bohemian Grove!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    6 minuti fa
    [U. S. and NATO: Allies of Al Qaeda: the servants of imperialism while Saudi Assad fights alone: ​​for the hope of Israel] In a video posted on the internet you see other rebels Syrians: that: Announce of the control gate of another border, to border with Turkey. The Turkish official sources have Confirmed. This is the gate of Bab Al-Salam north of Aleppo, Bab al Hawa and announce the beginning of an Islamic state, while above Their Heads, waving a flag of Al Qaeda. ["You may have Noticed how in the past two months, the opposition has Strengthened" (idiots, you have Transformed into a hero Assad! He wanted to leave peacefully, and in fact: it has amended the Constitution), said a senior Administration official: the Obama. "Now: we are ready to fast track this process," he added (to be set up at the Islamic state of Al Qaeda wanted by Saudi Arabia)]
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    6 minuti fa
    @ St. Michael the Archangel (patron of the "Hope of Israel") -> I command you in the name of the God of Abraham, Melchizedek: and Jesus Christ: to collect: your angelic hosts: because: I Have Decided to purify this planet with fire! [Kain 666 IMF CIA NWO 322: seignirage banking: Sharia Talmud] i, only one synagogue: all criminal Nazi Racists shit -> lol. what kind of strategic retreat, satan has your thought? but it's useless: "I'm coming to get you all!"
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    7 minuti fa
    @ My YHWH -> full of beauty, harmony and grace! full of glory: wisdom and joy, our benefactor, liberator! Holy! Holy! Holy! is the God of Abraham and, of the: His "Priest for ever: in the Order of Melchizedek" The King "unius REI!" is blessed for ever: Their faith! "all love for you: only: my God: full of grace, full of mercy and tenderness of infinite splendor without borders: it is your kindness! Blessed are you! from all your saints, we sing to you: from our Jewish Temple: how, even in the heart of every creature: "Holy Hallelujah hallelujah hallelujah" "hallelujah hallelujah Hallelujah Holy" "Holy Hallelujah hallelujah hallelujah" in fact, all your servants will have a royal crown! AMEN! terrible is the Lord Almighty! Who can resist your force? but to your enemies: Will Become: human torches: of despair: very soon! AMEN!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    7 minuti fa
    [This is my time, unius REI. This prophecy is Now Realized: before: your very eyes!] Ephesians 2:13-18. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who oz Were far away ((all the peoples of the world)) Have Been Brought near by the blood of Christ. 14. For he Himself is our peace, who has made the two groups (Jews and Christians) one group alone, and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility ((Which was among them: That the wickedness for: the Pharisees of the IMF)), 15. by setting aside ((destroying: by His death)) in His flesh: the law: With its commands and Regulations. His purpose was to create in Himself one new Humanity ((universal brotherhood)) out of the two [[the symbol of all possible opposition, but now, no longer? Enemies]] ((on the basis of Abraham: ie, the faith) ),
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    8 minuti fa
    [This is my time, unius REI. This prophecy is Now Realized: before: your very eyes!] Ephesians 2:15. Thus making peace (with all), 16. and in one body ((The Law of Love: or the natural law of Moses the Ten Commandments)) to reconcile both (any conflict) Of Them to God through the cross (the pardon), he put to death by Which Their hostility. 17. He (unius REI) is CAME and preached peace: to you ((to people)) who Were far away! and peace to Those ((Jews and Christians)) who Were near. 18. For through HIM ((Jesus Christ, or His unius REI: for metaphysics: outside of every religion to save the atheists: also)) we both, have access to the Holy Father by one Spirit. shalom salam +: = blessings too!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    8 minuti fa
    This is the salvation: political and universal of: REI unius Against all religions: that, They Have Been damaged and corrupted, by the Salafis and: by the Illuminati, and Against: the ministers of God, That Are racist, envious, predators, bullies, arrogant, nasty, Ideological, imperialist. Because, if a minister of God is not: a Father full of love: for all the whole human race? So, he is a true: minister of Satan. Between a little, you'll see the power of God! St. Paul of Tarsus? he wanted to be: excommunicated: he, by Jesus: why: Jews Could Become Christians! it was so great: His love for His Jewish people! but this: it's not my problem! infact: I have only refuting the heresy of the Pharisees (Talmud)! Because: my job is to restore: the true Judaism of Abraham and Moses (in spirit and in truth): the path of freedom of the sons of God under grace: and under the mercy of the Freedom That Is' love! Because even if the law is true? However, it is always the law, That Is bad and kills!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    8 minuti fa
    but whoever does not make a gift of His life of love for all mankind, as he Could Be, to "Image and likeness of ITS Creator? as, Could he enter into the kingdom of God? @ MarlaMarleEn is why, I can no longer? Harass or kill (so supernatural); repentant sinners, According Because: the Judgment of God? Their are all Been: victims of Satan: only! I know When someone comes back to God? God Thinks that: it was all the fault of Satan, and of Satan only! that's why I am compelled to forgive Rothschild, and, I am forced to forgive: all repentant sinners! there's too much anger in my heart, but: not even in only speck of dust of hate!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    9 minuti fa
    @ MarlaMarleen ----------- who, Those of us in a moment of His Life, has not Been Betrayed deeply into His feelings: from loved ones? at That Moment: Could I choose: to become, a piece of shit, like Synnek1 (for to say: there is no love, there is no friendship), or: like Jesus, I Could decides: to be the most loyal, for every person That I HAD passed next to me: ie: I would be a gift of God, for him, but I did not choose to be: a piece of shit: like Satan, but I have Chosen: to: to follow the example of Jesus! why: If I Had Been Betrayed and I was left: without love, me? So, I had the duty to give love and friendship to everyone for free, because, really, this: that, the technique is of God: used to convert sinners!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    9 minuti fa
    @ CIA EXecutionKiller IMF, ie 666 spammers examination of this page - You did not have to delete all the comments I made: about: Marla Marleen, That She said: ... After a long time?: I'll give you: my hand of peace!. - Answer - The son of light, h is: Also the son of peace! Peace is a gift, by all, to give to all (like Jesus, who, he Demanded: Their condition, to do His miracles) That is why, all peoples, we love, without conditions! In fact, if God, loved, only, Those, who Were worthy, Of His love? Who of us, would be alive? you must to give peace and love: always unconditionally, Because this is an educational project: without Which the world would have no one only hope of life. - ANSWER -> Because you know .. When I get angry? day Satanists and Freemasons: like flies!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    9 minuti fa
    ExecutionKiller --- lol. good job, my friend Satanist! But, I'm busy: with all the current crimes: of the: IMF: 666 322, Sharia, etc.. .. Illuminati are set: to make the destruction of Israel, and I do not have the time or the sent (by God) to be interested in the crimes of the past! But if Iran renounce: at Sharia as Egypt? Then, I will make sure That Iran and Israel can Become friends: Against the Little Satan, that: is the Saudi Arabia!
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    9 minuti fa
    [Shock at the French Radio (RMC), a Syrian Tells the Truth About Syria] During the famous morning broadcast led by Jean Jacques Bourdin (Bourdin & co.) Refers to Syria. A member of the opposition would have to be a guest in transmission but With its last-minute unavailability is Stephane invited ... But not everything goes as planned. this is the true! "Syria is held hostage by gangs of criminals who terrorize the population." July 14, the Syrian news agency Sana site: is hacked (by Satanists: of the CIA, and still is not available), the only source of news: in the media: are the news: of armed rebel groups: criminal Islamists terrorists salafis of Saudi Arabia. ie, Al Qaeda! all news are misleading! jesus-is-savior . com/False Religions / Wicca & Witchcraft / skull_and_bones_exposed. htm
  • UniusRei3
    UniusRei3 ha pubblicato un commento
    13 minuti fa
    Also continuing is the 'border war'. Government forces have now taken control of one of two border crossings with Iraq which was seized by the rebels in recent days: that of Rabiha. While the insurgents have captured one third along the border with Turkey, to Bab al Salam. Security sources in Jordan have instead announced that they had arrested 13 Islamic militants Salafi (Al Qaeda) who wanted to go to Syria to join a jihadist group to fight against the regime. but, to help imperialism Arabia: in Syria: EU, and USA says, new penalties for strengthening the embargo against regime LiberoQuotidiano - 5 hours ago